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- ROINN COSANT. BUREAU OF MILITARY HISTORY, 1913-21. STATEMENT BY WITNESS DOCUMENT NO. W.S. 779 (Section 2) Witness Robert. Brennan, 42 Lower Dodder Road, Rathfarnham, Dublin Identity. Acting Comd't. wexford Brigade, Irish Vol's 1916; O/C. Sinn Fein Press Bureau, 1916-1921; Under see. Foreign Affaire, Dail Eireann, 1921-'22; Irish Minister at Washington, 1938-1947. Subject. Text of his book "Allegiance" with some additional notes. Conditions, if any, Stipulated by Witness. Nil File No S.537 Form B.S.M.2 175 Without a pass, at the suggestion of a smile, the other replied: "No, but it is how that it is the way that there are three ribs broke in it" The efforts of the fefllows to get around trio silence rule were ingenious but not usual1y sucoeseful. Etchingham, However. seemed to be very lucky in this respect. One was not allowed to speak even to a warder, except on a matter of discipline. but there was a loophole hers which Patsy took full. advantage of. Ho was always asking the warders for guidance on this, that and the other, and he got in a lot of conversation. One day, during lockup, we had the usual visit froma Visiting Justice. Ito happened to be a gentleman named Column, of mustard fame. He appeared at the cell door, preceded by a warder and, announcing Who he was, asked if there were any complaints. Usually the answer was in the negative Etchingham. however, not iced that Mr. Colman was attired in riding garb and when the usual question was put. he said. "No, it's not what you might call a complaint but I'm worried about a colt." "A colt, what colt?" "Well, it's a colt they have at home and I'm afraid 176 they'll soil it. You See, its a thoroughbred. and 1 think the people at home don't relies its value." He launched into an account of the pedigree Of the colt he named nearly every Grand National winner in the preceding twenty-five years. There followed a long discussion between Colman and himself about famous horses and jockeys. This was a subject sear to Etchingham's heart, as he had himself been a professional jockey in his early days. It appeared that the colt in question night be sold tot twenty pounds, Whereas it was worth certainly twenty times that sun. "But why don't you write about it?" asked Colman. "Well, I can't. I'm not entitled to a letter for four months." "But the Governor would give you permission for a special loiter." "Oh, I dunno. I doubt it and I don't like to be turned down," "Well, I tell you what I'll do. I'll see the Governor my self and get the necessary permission for you." "Good Mean!" said Patsy, that's fins, "Maybe I'll do as much far you some day." Thereupon Etchingham got permission for a special letter. The reply, when it Came, required an answer, and the 177 correspondence continued for quite a long time. One day nearly a year later, when we had been transferred to Lewes jail, 1 asked Patsy how the matter of the colt had fared. "What colt?" "The colt you were writing home about." "Oh, that colt, well, as a matter of feat. I sold that colt myself fifteen years ago." Phil MacMahon was always getting into trouble for talking. He used to think up the most atrocious conundrums and he had to get them across to someone. One day he was trying one on Austin Stack, but because of the vigilance of the waiters. he could only say two or three words at a time between long pauses, so we had gone half a dozen times round the circle before Phil got it out. It was: "What has become of all the young men who used to move in Gaelic League circles?" Answer: "They are new moving in prison squares." I hoard Austin say with a groan, "Great God Almighty!" We were allowed two books from the Library every week. We 4rere even allowed to select our own books but that did not necessarily mean we got the books we selected, In fact, I hardly ever got the book I wanted. Austin Stacks, apparently, 178 had the same experience, for one day when I was on orderly duty, I saw written on his slate: "Give me any two books you like except novels writhen by Miss M.E. Braddon." On another occasion, Dick Hayes was in a towering rage. He and I ware serubbing the corridor and he managed to tell me the cause. Someone at home had sent him a copy of Francis Thompson's "Hound of Heaven". The chaplain had stopped it and when Dick asked him why, he had replied: "Wasn't Francis Thompson one of the fellows talc were whet in the Rising?" We had been About four months in the place when we scored a victory. My officer friend came into the Workshop and down to our counter in a state of suppressed delight. "There's a hell of a row going on." he said as soon as we started working. "It seems that the 'Cork Examiner' has published aletter. two columns long, giving particulars of Your treatment here, with the mesh minute details. It must have been written by one of the prisoners, but the mystery is how it got out. Do you know?" "I Do." I Said. "but I Can't tell you." "It's great work," he said "it has never been done before in Dartmoor. Tommy is in a fearful wax." Tommy was Principal. Warder Stone, He was one of the 179 vainest men I have ever known and he seemed to have been created for his post. For instance, he always knew when one wan going to talk. Often1 just as I wan about to do so, I Would hear his voice behind me: "Now then Brennan, keep that tongue of yours quiet" This morning he came over to me as soon as my instructor had gone. "Look here, Brennan." he said, "I've always triad to treat you fellows decently, haven't 17 I never had a man up for report." This was quite true and I admitted it. "Well," ho went on "some of your follows have been up to trifle. There has been a letter published in the Irish Papers and it must have been written by one of the prisoners. Do you think that's fair to me?" I expressed my surprise at the news. "Do you know anything about it?" "Is that a fair question." I asked, Do you think if I did know, I Would tell you anything about it." He want on to say we were not treating him fairly and that if he were removed from the "party" and it, for instance, the Wasp replaced him, things would not run so smoothly. That's quite right" I said, "Maybe some at us would 180 like that." "You don't know what you're talking about. they can ride you to death if they try." "Maybe." "Are you going to write anything about this place when you get out." "I might." "I hope you'll be fair to me." I suddenly remembered that Etchingham was dying to get off the hard bench where he was sewing, so I told Stone that Etchingham was planning to write a book on the place. Next Day, Etchingham was taken off the bench and put to work at a newing machine, out of which he seemed to get a great deal of enjoyment. As for the "Cork Examiner" letter, it had been a pains- taking and prolonged job. It was de Leacey's idea. We had no pens, pencils, ink, or paper and a letter had to be written, and in spite of three personal searches every day, a cell search every night,a special cell search every week and surprise searches now and then, it had to be kept care- fully until it could be smuggled out by a visitor. It seamed impossible, but we managed to do it. Three or four paces behind my counter there was a sort of sentry box which was 181 used by the Principal Warder now and again when he had to sign reports. There was a bottle of ink there but oval if I could get into the plans unobserved, I could not take the ink bottle because its lose would be noticed before our plane were compete. So we decided I should take the ink and not the bottle. I got a chance, we ma to have a container. At the time, we wore supplied with halt an ounce of margarine with breakfast and this was served in small tins little bigger than a thimble, DeLacey Held Back One of these tins and he concealed it in one of the watering cane which were carried over each morning to supply drinking water to the workshop. He went into the recess in the workshop to fill the watering can and he left the margarine tin concealed.. in the place. Diarmuid Lynch retrieved the tin and left it on his counter behind some bags. Gerard crofts carrying supplies of canvas from Lynch to me, brought the tin with him. As there were thee warders on duty all the time watching us, we ha to be careful at ovary atop. I worked very hard cutting material till I had a huge pile on my counter then, under cover of these I took the tin and crept on my hands and knees to the sentry b0x. poured the ink into the tin and crept back. We then had to reverse the process and we did this so success-. fully that the ink in the bottom of the watorin4 can in 182 the recess in our hall that night, Just before lockup, when the cell search was over, deLtacey suddenly reasnbefld he had go no drinking water for the night.. lie asked Stone to let bun get some and the latter agreed ¥ DeLacey brought his can to the recess and brought back the little tin containing the in in the bottom of it, pretending it was full of water. He had managed to manufacture and conceal a nib from same materials in the drawer of his counter. He wrote the letter that night. We had to keepit for nearly three weeks until Diarmuid Lynch had a visitor. It was explained to Diarmuid that he would see his visitor in a room but that he was on no account to approach him. Diarmuid was searched as he left the exercise ground for the interview, and he was searched again before he entered the office. In a corner of his psckethandkerchief which ho held aloft in his hand during the search, he had the precious Letter. As he entered the office and saw his friend, Diarmuid conveniently forgot, his instruction, and he stopped impulsively forward. "Why, Hello, Seumas," he cried, as he shook hands with the visitor. "Now, now," cried Stone Who wag superintending the interview, and the two men parted, The letter, however, was now in safe hands. 183 One immediate effect of the publication of this letter was that the officers showed mare respect for us. 184 CHAPTER KII Two By-elections held in Ireland early in 1917 were lost by the Irish Parliamentary Party and won by Sinn Fain, a clear indication of a profound change in Irish public opinion. It was nearing the end of the year when there occurred a major incident. Some of us had been getting six ounces of bread extra because we had bee losing weight. We shared this boon by passing the extra loaf every alternate day to someone who was not on the special list. One day when we returned from the workshop, de Valera stepped into his cell, seized his extra leaf and tossed it across the dim hall into Jack Macardle's cell on the opposite side. Jack was waiting for it and caught. it neatly, and the two doors closed. Usza1ly this procedure was pretty safe as it was very gloomy at that end of the hall. However, this time a lynx-eyed warder, who was very officious and who was standing on the bridge on an upper floor, saw something passing through the air and he raced down, and opened Jack's Cell just as the latter had taken his first bite of the loaf. Jack and Dew 185 were hailed before the Governor and sentenced to three days solitary confinement on bread and water. Dev promptly went on hunger strike. But for one or two friendly warders, we would not have known of this, for both men had been removed to another wing of the prison. Some of us wanted an immediate general eympathetic strike. I heard that Austin Stack was against this and in the next line-up I managed to get beside him, He was dead against the idea and warned ma not to go further with it, The time had not arrived he said. I always found it Very difficult to get Stack to take action in such cans but won he did, it was even more difficult to get him to stop. On the following day, two other men were absent from the 1ine-up, Dr. Dick Hayes and Desmond Fitzgerald. We learned later that, with Dev, they had been removed to another prison. There was no little feeling over the dispute as to whether we should take action or not. We did nothing, but discipline became noticeably more slack and our fellows grew more daring. One day an entirely unpremeditated demonstration on our part threw the whole prison system out of gear. There was more than a touch of frost in the air as we wont round the exercise ring, Some of the younger prisoners found the lagging, dragging pace too slow and there wore audible 186 exhortations from some 91 them to "step out". Suddn1y I saw one of the men taking a sudden short run and getting in front of the man who had been ahead of him. I saw a puzzled look on the warder's face. He knew something had happened but could not make out what it was. than the same man did the same thing again. He example was followed by Frank Thornton who passed me and stepped in front of me. I made a run and ret3ained my place. Like a flash the movement was taken up all round the ring and soon, to keep our places, we were all running, the older men retiring to the inner circle. It started with a trot, but in a little while we were all racing madly, yelling and shrieking like Wild Indians. It was a spontaneous outlet of emotions pent up for months. The warders, aghast and panic stricken at this unprecedented conduct, retreated to the various exits from the exercise ground and summoned the armed guard who were usually on duty only during fog. The guards came running, muskets in hands, but we paid no attention to them. We continued galloping round and round till got the signal to fall in and we did so boisterous G laughing and cheering. When we got the order to march off someone cried "Double" and we ran to the workshop followed by the panting warders. That was definitely the end of the rigid silence rule. My warder was Jubilant when he cams in. 187 "The news is all over the plane," he said. "The Irish are up. Theta is Terrific excitement." Half an hour later Stone came in. He was very agitated, He strolled around for a while and then came over to me. "Say, Brennan." he said. "can you tan me the meaning of all this?" "It's only a bit of fun." I said, and added: "We're getting tired of the place." "Was this thing prearranged?" "I'm sorry, I can't tell you." "You moan you don't know." "I mean I'm not saying." "Are you one of the leaders?" "You don't expect me to answer that." "Is there likely to be another outburst?" "That Wasn't an outburst. You'll know what an outburst is when you see one." "I've tried to be good to you fellows." he said. "I think I'm entitled to some co-operation." In the afternoon he came back again. and asked was there anything I could suggest to ease the situation. "You could bring de Valera Back." I said. 188 "I can't do that. I've nothing to do with it Is There Anything I Personally Can Do?" "Well." I said, "you might prevent murder by removing some of these warders." "Which of them?" I indicated the three warders then in the room. One of them was the man who had reported de Vales and Macardle: the other two were fond of making trouble. "Are there any officers you would prefer?" This was going too far. I night get some of the decent ones Victimized. "Any of them." I said, "so long as you take those three away." The three warden wore taken aft that evening and we did not see them again. flay were replaced by three easy-going men who did not seem to mind our talking so long as there was no superior officer about. One of them, indeed, used to keep watch at the spyhole in the door and warn us when the Principal Warder was coming. Things were much easier from the time on. Early in December, they told no we wore being removed to another prison where we would have the special privilege of being allowed to talk during exercise and of sending and receiving fortnightly letters. Up to that time, we could 189 receive one letter every four months. We were told we could travel in civilian clothes if we gave an undertaking not to try to escape, We refused to give the undertaking, so we made the journey in convict garb and in chains, five men to a chain. It wasn't a comfortable journey and it lasted a long time, right aerase the South of England, Whenever any maul had occasion to go to the lavatory, all five men on his chain had to go with him as the warders carried no keys to the chains. My warder had told me that if he was not sent with us, ho would leave the prison service. Re did not come with us and he left the service. A few years later, he was arrested in a round-up of Sinn Feiners in London and sent with about one hundred prisoners to Mountjoy Jail in Dublin. Our new abode, Lewes Jail in Sussex, seemed to be a beautiful place after the experience of Dartmoor, The cell floors were of wood and there were hot water pipes and, though they were never hot, they looked good. The lighting. of the calls, too, was infinitely better. I had been only a short time in my cell when the door opened and a man in civil1ian dress entered. He said he was the Governor and he hoped I would be comfortable, This, I said to myself, is a poliey of killing us with kindness. The Governor was a Very quiet, gentle-spoken man and though he seemed to be young, his 190 hair was quite white. We learned later that he had spent three years as a spy in the Madhi's camp While the British were conquering the latter's territory. The Governor asked if I needed anything. I asked for writing materials and a typewriter. "A Typewriter!" he exclaimed. He could not have been more surprised had I asked for a machine gun, He said he would ask permission to give me the writing materials but he know the typewriter was out of the question, In reply to his queries, I told him I wanted to write a few stories and we got talking about books, He told me he took a keen interest in mathematics and said he was worrying over a problem Which had appeared in the Cambridge magazine, He had been over a month working at it and he had found a solution which he knew must be wrong because, if it wore right, the ice age must still have bold Sussex as late as the ninth century which, of course, was absurd,. He asked me if 1 were good at mathematics. "I'm not bad." I said, "but I don't think I could solve your problem. There is a man here, however, Who could I think. His name is do Valera." He hurried off to Dev's cell. Next day I asked Dev how he had got on with the problem. 191 "I solved it." he said, "but it took me over an hour." "But the Governor said he had been over a month at it." "Yes." he said, "and he might have been at it for ten years if he had continued to forget, as he did, that the square root of a positive may have a plus or minus valus. He thought only of the plus value." "I'm glad you sent him to me" continued Dev, "because he is going to let me have Poincare's work on Quaternions in four volumes. I have been wanting it for a long time." "Quaternions." said, "I can't remember What they are but I think they wore invented or discovered by Rowan Hamilton." "That's right." "Wall, what are they anyway?" "It's hard to explain." said Dev, "but it's like. this. You take a point in space. or say take a point in a room. In the ordinary way, you can locate that point if you know its distance from two walls. and the floor or ceiling. How, Quaternions. will indicate the location of that point by one symbol instead of three This left me up in the air so I changed the Subject to talk of Rowan Hamilton himself, He was that rare genius who was an infant prodigy and who renamed a prodigy When he was 192 no longer an infant, He might have been but was not a hateful child. Born in Dublin in1805, he read Hebrew at the age of seven, Before he wag twelve, he was not only a master of all the European languages and of Latin and Greek, but he had a knowledge of Syrias, Persian,' Arabic, Sanskrit, Hindustani and Malay. At. ten, he know nothing of mathematics but happening on a Latin copy o Euclid, he studied it and within two yeas he had mastered not only it, but every work on mathematics then written, He was self-taught. In his eighteenth year, he entered Trinity College and in all the examinations he took first place. Apart from his languages and mathematics, he twice gained the Vice-Chairman's prize for English Verse, He was an orator, scholar, poet, meta- physician, mathematician and natural philosopher, When he was about twenty he was made Astronomer Royal for Ireland and he took up this position in Dunsink Observatory, where no remained for the rest of his life working out many mathematical problems of the most abstuse kind. He foresaw clearly, though he did not name it, the theory of Relativity later set down by Einstein. One day, in his old age, walking down the road near Dunsink, he came on a ancient villager sitting on the bridge wall, And the ancient villager said: "What is it you are doing today, Mr. Astronomer Royal?" 193 "I am." he said "multiplying the North-East by the South-West." When I told Dev This, he said: "And that is exactly what he was doing." Nearly thirty years later, in 1943 to be precise, I had occasion to call on Albert Einstein in Princeton University. I had been commissioned by the Irish Government to invite him to the Colloquium about to be hold in Dublin under the auspices of the Institute of Higher Learning. The great man came into the room where I wag waiting, dressed in an old tweed suite, the coat of which was buttoned high across his chest. He were no collar or tie and his heavy boots were actually tied with of twine. His kindly Hebrew ayes twinkled under a mass of grey hair which pointed to the four winds. He was pleased to receive the invitation and sorry he could not accept it because his health prevented his from travelling. I told him the story of Dev and the prison Governor and he was highly amused. We talked of Hamilton and I told him he had said on one occasion that he was multiplying the Nosh-East by the South-West and that hew Dev had said: "that's exactly what he was doing". Dr. Einstein said: "Of course it was." which again left me up in the air. 194 In Lewes we met many old friends because all the Irish prisoners from Portland Dartmoor, Maidstene and other prisons. were brought together there. There were over one hundred and thirty of us. We talked all the time in spite of all efforts to stop us and we made wonderful plans about how we were going to carry on the fight when we got out. In addition, we were all1 studying Various subjects, particularly languages, Frenoh, German. Spanish Italian, and, of course, Irish. Pearse Beasley held examinations for the Fainns. It is curious that after the silence of Dartmoor I should have so quickly tired of talk but after a few days in Lewes, I weloomed the evening and the silence of my cell. I had got my writing materials and I completed two full length mystery novels before we loft the place. We ware spilt up into various parties assigned to carry out the work of the prison. There were about thirty of us in the workshop whore we made hearth rugs and doormats, the former on looms, the latter on upright frames. Etchingham was given a loom and the warder instructed him how to make the rug. "Do I have to make that?" he asked, looking at a 195 completed rug. "Yes." said the warder. "I'm afraid they've selected the wrong man." said E1chingham, "I've only got five years to do." Vincent Poole, a Citizen Army man almost precipitated a general row within the first few days in Loses. He was in the workshop with us and he began to sing "The Green, Flag". When the warder had checked him a few times, he suddenly got up from his seat and yelled at the warder; "What's this about? 1 might as well be in Jail." Whereupon he was brought before the Governor and sent to the cells, He went on a hunger strike. He even rotund to let the warden enter his cell and when they triad to put him in a straight Jacket, he boat them. A section of the p1iacaers wanted a sympathetic strike in his favour but do Valera had had a Prisoners' Council elected and they decided against it. There was a very strained atmosphere, however, until Poole was returned to us. In the workshop, after a short while, discipline became so lax that we strolled about where we liked and there was very little work done. Most of my time was spent in or Slattery's loom. He was giving half a dozen of us a series or lectures on science and chemistry, After his lecture, 196 we would adjourn to jack Plunkett's loom and he discoursed on Dante and Italian literature, There were individual talks on such subjects as hand caning. poster illustrations, gardening, music, etc. and I Game a series of talks on bee- keeping. On the exorcise ground, Eotn MacNeill was giving Sean MacEntes, Con Donovan and myself a series of lectures on ancient Irish History. Without a textbook, or oven a note- book to which to refer, he gave a series of sixteen lectures in the most complete detail, covering some ton centuries of history. One day, our lecture was rudely interrupted. One of our comrades, who had more curiosity than taut, Pushed his, way in between MacNeill and myself. He put his arm very familiarly around MacNeill's shoulder. "Say, Mae." he said. "why did you stop the Rising?" MacNeill stopped and glared at, him. Then putting his hands on the other's cheat, he pushed him away with no little violence. "Go away from met" he cried, and the man went off looking very much astonished. Principal officer Stone had come with us from Dartmoor and the poor man was very much distressed at the lack of discipline in the new prison. His vanity, however, was still 197 colossal. One day he conducted half a dozen of us to the baths for our weekly immersion. Etchingham was in the next bath to mine and he was giving me an account of the death of poor old Mrs. Webb in Gorsy. "She was a hundred and three" said Etchingham, "and I saw her dancing a jig last year." As there was a four foot wall between us and as the noise of the lads splashing in the baths was considerable, he had to talk very loud. Stone Intervened; "Now then, Etchingham, not so loud." "I'm only tolling him." yelled Patsy, "about old Mrs. Webb. She has just died at the age of a hundred and three and 1 saw her dancing a jig last year. Now, what do you think of that, Mr. Stone?" "Well." said Stone, "some people-carry their years well. What age would you think I am?" "I suppose you'd be around thirty-five," said Patsy. "You think I'm fifty." "Why, Mr. Stone." said sitting up in his bath in his amazement, "nobody would ever take you to be more than thirty-five. You're a wonderful fine man." "Oh, you should hare seen me twenty yearn age. I tell you the girls used to look at me." 198 "I'm sure they're doing that still" said Patsy. "And even though I'm fifty, there are very few of your fellows would give me ten yards in a hundred." "I bet they wouldn't. Do you know, Mr. Stance, there must have been a great moon the night you were born." "Why do you say that?" "Well, you know, we have an old saying in Ireland 'no moon, no man'." Afterwards, Soumas Doyle said to patsy: "I never heard that old saying 'no moon to man'." "Neither did I." said Patsy. After a while, I was transferred to the cleaning squad and life became much mere interesting. There were fits of us and Marry Boland was our leader. We took our Orders from Harry and not at all from the warder, though we never had any trouble with the man generally in charge of us, a little fellow named Gallop. Amongst other unofficial duties, Harry supplied us with extra bread. We had our own men working in the kitchen and every morning, knowing the time the cleaning squad was passing the kitchen window, one of them was waiting with a string of a half a dozen six ounce loaves, As Harry passed the window the loaves were shot forward and Harry took them and slipped them under his jersey. It was so quiokly 199 and so neat]y done that even I, who was following Harry, failed more often than not to see the operation. As opportunity offered, Harry divided the loaves amongst us and we concealed them under our oxters. One day, because some- one wag ill, Dick Hayes was assigned to our squad. We had passed the kitchen window and we were swabbing a little yard when Harry pushed a loaf into Dick's hand. Dick held the loaf in his hand and gazed at it as if it were some strange insect. "What am I to do with It?" he asked blankly. Before Harry had time to reply, the warder strode across, looking very angry. "What's up?" he asked. Harry grinned at him. "Dr. Hayes is a new corner," he said. The warder turned to Dick. "Put that thing under your Jersey." he said drily. One of the things the cleaning squat had to do was to purloin an Irish newspaper which, by the time it passed though over one hundred hands, was in shreds. We get the newspaper from the Priest's room. Each morning, the five Of us went down to clean the entrance hail on which opened the offices of the Governor, the Priest and the steward. 200 We swept the hall so a preliminary to scrubbing it and I had to fill the coal scuttle a the steward's room. I had also to ornate a diversion so as to enable Harry to get into the Priest's office unobserved. Gallop always fell for the ruse. had got very chummy with us and he had oven pinked up a few Irish phrases, such as, "Dun and doras", "Eist do ghoul," ets. One morning I wont as usual into the steward's room and upset my bucket of coal with a clatter. Gallop Cain to the door. "What's the racket?" "I spilled the coal." "What's wrong with you? You're always spilling some. thing." "Well, this its not the sort of work I'm used to." Gallopreturned to the hall and I followed as soon as I had cleaned up the mess. I took my brush and started sweeping. "Bfuil as sgat" - (Have you got it?) I said to Harry. "Ta." (I have) he replied. Gallop had heard me. He walked over to Harry and tried to repeat the phrase I had used. "Will shay gut?" he said. Harry laughed. "Ta." he said. Gallop wont into the Priest's room and saw that the 201 newspaper was gene, He turned towards us and said: "Ta, by God!" He did not give us away, however, and, we continued to. get the paper until the Priest forestalled us by having it delivered elsewhere. Harry had the first look at the paper as, of course, he was entitled to. One day, as we were all returning, to our calls for dinner, he astonished us by yelling from his door- way: "Russia is out of the war, boys. That's one leg off o' the pot." The, place rang with cheers and cries, of "up the Rebels!" We had another demonstration when Joe McGuinness, one of our fellow prisoners, was elected M.P. for Longford. That night we celebrated the victory with a concert to which nearly everyone contributed. The singers, standing on stools in their cells, sang out through the windows. Some of the efforts were deplorable but we had a few goat voices, including those of Gerard Crofts, Soumas Hughes and the brothers Tommy and Charlie Bevan who had been with the Cars Rosa Opera Company. Crofts had the cell immediately beneath mine and every night he would give us a few songs from his vast repertoire His voice was never very powerful but he was a 202 real artist and he could make any and every old acing sound beautiful. Fergus O'Connor was a prisoner to was always planning some trick or another. If then you pulled down the later on your loom all the intricate threads chapped, or if you found the mouth of the bag you were making sewed up, it was ten to one that O'Connor was the cause of it. One day I saw him going about from place to place in the workshop with a ball of jute There ware a dozen huge, upright wooden frames for making jute mats lined along the workshop floor. Fergus put the ball through the tops of one frame after another till the tale lot were linked by the card. Then he tied the string to the end of a long heavy form. I was surprised that Hawke, the very officious officer who was on duty, did not spot him and I wondered what the outcome would be. At last, Hawks spoke to Fergus asking him why he was not making his mat. "I had to get some jute." said Fergus and, at the same time, he jerked the cord behind his back. Down went the heavy form with a clatter and dot with it vent all the big frames from one end of the room to the other. The noise was terrific. When it subsided, Fergus said to Hawke: "Now look at what you're after doing." 203 CHAPTER XIII In April 1917, the U.S. entered the war pledged to the principle of government by consent of the governed for all nations great and small. The British endorsed this principle in words. Their treatment of Ireland was becoming embarrassing in view of these Words. Food is an e1emnta1 thing and, I suppose, its moat frequent symbol is bread. It. was a tiny loaf of bread which had precipitated a crisis in Dartmoor and again in Lewes a similar loaf was the beginning of a lot of trouble. Harry Boland and Dick King one day passed through the prison kitchen in charge of the warder Hawke, whom none of us liked because he was always looking for trouble. There had been two six- ounce loaves on the kitchen table before they entered. They were gone when they left. They were missed almost at once and the warder in charge rushed up and told Hawks, who ran immediately to King's call. He found King eating one of the loaves. Harry and Dick were had up before the Governor and sentenced to 1%hree days in solitary. As they were leaving the Governor's office, Harry turned and said to the Governor: "If any ten of your men can put me into a solitary cell, 204 I'm wining to go there." He hurried to the end of the main hall and stood with his back to an iron-barred gate. "Now." he said to the Governor and the warder who had followed him, "send far your ton best men." There was a hasty conference and it wan decided that Harry and Dick should go to their own cells. When I was passing Harry's call, I shouted encouragement to him. "Go away." he said, "don't interrupt my thoughts, I've started the contemplative life." This was funny coming from Marry than whom thorn were few more active or vigorous. He wont on hunger strike. The chaplain, on a visit to him, absentmindedly offered him a chocolate. "Get thee behind me, Satan." said Harry, with a grin which was always infectious. The chaplain grinned also. When Harry and Dick rejoined us, we decided to Worry the warder Hawks till he died or resigned. We got our chance a few days later when Hawke was on duty and it came to the turn of Harry and myself to bring round the breakfast which normally consisted of a loaf, a pint of cocoa and a pint of porridge. However9 because we were on half-bread rations, owing to the shortage caused by the war, we were given a 205 kippered herring three times a week. There were thirty-four men in our call block and an equal number of loaves came up born the kitchen in a wooden tray, Hawke walked in front and Harry followed, pushing the tray along the handrail The wader opened a cell door, took a loaf from the tray and handed it to the prisoner arid passed on to the next cell. As he did so, Harry took a loaf in his right hand and jerked it behind his back into the cell past the head of the astonished prisoner. The movement was as quick as a flash. It had to be, because immediately following Harry owns another warder and myself. I was toting a big bucket of cocoa from which nut warder measured out a pint for each prisoner. Harry repeated the operation several times. When he got to the home stretch, Hawke looked at the tray. "Why." he said, "there are only three loaves.""That's Right." said Harry "and there are two, four, six, oig1t coils to do." He looked at Hawks with his sunniest smile. "It doesn't seem possible." "There were thirty-four loaves brought up." said, Hawke, "I courted them." "Something wrong with your arithmetic," said Harry. Hawke had to send down for five additional Loaves. This 206 meant serious trouble for him. When it came serving out the kippers, Harry took the tray. Hawke went in front, as before, and opened the cell door. Thon he lifted the kipper on a spoon and transferred it to the plate the prisoner was holding. Before the prisoner had time to close his door, Harry had taken a kipper by the tail, slung it round his bask and into the cell as before. He had to be more careful this time. as Hawke was watching him closely. Nevertheless, he managed to got rid of four of the kipper. To say Hawke was flabbergasted when he reached the final cells, is to put it mildly. He gazed at the tray, gasping like a fish himself. "What's wrong?" asked Harry innocently. "There are only five kippers." "Well?" "We have to do nine cells more." Harry looked up and counted the coils. "Begob that's right." he said, "that's funny." "But I counted thirty-four," said Hawke. "Nonsense," said Harry. "There are they?" Of course, Hawke had to send dot for more kipper which was another black mark for him. The climax Came when we were serving the porridge. 207 Harry had gone back to his cell and I was lugging the bucket of porridge around, The warder served this by plunging a long-handled scoop into the porridge and measuring Out a pint into each prisoner's mug. When we come to Harry's cell the later, instead of presenting a mug, had one of the pint dinner tine. Hawke ladled out his porridge and the tin was only three parts full. "Excuse me." said Harry, "this tin holds a pint." "What do you meant?" "It's only three-quarters full and I'm entitled to a pint." "Well." said Hawke, "I was never very particular before but I'm going to be now." "There's no need to grouse about it." said Harry. "That's Right." I said, "every man is entitled to a pint of porridge." "You keep out of this." said Hawke to ma. "Come On." said Harry, "be a sport." "I'll show you." said Hawke, and the fool of a man instead of filling up the tin and leaving the matter so look the tin from Many and emptied it into the bucket with the idea of measuring the exact fin of the scoop. Of course, by this time. the tin was slippery and it escaped from Hawke's 208 fingerer and fell into the bucket. "Now." said Hawke, glaring at Harry, "look tat you've done." "You mean what you've done." said Harry. Hawke began to Suera as me fished the tin out of the bucket of porridge. By the time he got it out, he had some porridge on his sleeve, on the breast of his tunic and on his chin. The warden always tried to keep their uniforms spick and span and, of course, the poor man Was, by this time, in a terrible rage. His language was unprintable. "Now, now," said Harry, reprovingly, "that's not nice talk." "And all far nothing," I said. "I've never before head it disputed that every man is entitled to a pint of porridge." "If you say another word." said Hawke to me, and stopped. "But I'm only saying." I said, "that every man is entitled to a pint of porridge." "Shut Up." said Hawke. "As a matter or fact." I said to Harry, "I think it is on your call card in there." Harry went back into the cell and took down the card. 209 "Here it is" he said, "Look, read it for yourself, Mr. Hawks. breakfast one pint of porridge, and that shows Mr. Brennan is right. Every man is entitled to a pint of porridge." Harry finally got his pint of porridge and we moved on to the next cell when Hawke had done his best to remove the stains from his tunic. The next cell was occupied by Willie Cdrrigan. 'Isn't that right, Willie." I said. "What?" "Every man is entitled to a pint of porridge." "Oh, sure," said Willie at once, "every man is entitled to pint of porridge." "If you don't stop that at once," said Hawks to me, "I'll put you back in your cell right now and report you to the Governor." "All right." I said, "you'll be quite within your rights, but I'm sure that the Governor will hold that every man is entitled to a pint of porridge." We continued round the cells and if I repeated the phrase once I must have said it fifty times. Finally, Hawke could stand it no longer. In a loud voice he commanded me to up." 210 Stone had come into the hall downstairs. His tenor voice came floating up. "What's the matter, Mr. Hawke?" "It's nothing, Mr, Stone." I said, "only a misunderstand. ing. Mr. Hawke doesn't seem to realize that every man is entitled to a pint of porridge." "Why, of course." said Stone, "every man is entitled to a kit of porridge." Hawke applied for a transfer that night and we never saw him aw more. Yearn later, when I was Under-Secretary for Foreign Affairs and Marry was the Iris Envoy to the United States, he used to send as long official repots. At the end of every one of them, in his own hand-writing, were the words, "Every man entitled to a pint Of porridge." It is curious to recall stow how easily and naturally do Valera stepped into the leadership. Apart fromthe foot that he was the ranking survivor of the Dublin officers, he became the loader of the prisoners in Dartmoor from the day he gave the salute to MacNeill. in Lawns he became the header of us all, without any consultation, debate or election there was an election later, but long before that be had become "the chief", Whenever any proposal was made or dis- 211 cussed, the first question everyone asked was "what does De think of it?" Even at that early stage, there was the contradiction that though we found him tantalizingly conservative we were all lacking to him for a load. We finally got. it from him. The officiate in Levee found that the mare concessions we obtained, the won liberties we took, In the workshop particularly, after, a little while, no one paid the slightest Stratton to an order from the officials. For instance, Tom Doyle one of the Enniscorthy prisoners, was making jute door mats on a frame. He discovered that some balls of jute were a shade darker than others ant by skillfully. utilizing the two shades, ho produced a mat which hid a neatly designed harp in the centre. The difference in shades, however, was so delicate that the design could be seen only from refrain angles. Tom was very proud of his artistry and ha lingered over the last roaming rows of his mat. We were all wonder- ing if any of the warders would notice the design. One day, Stone came along and saw it. He was aghast. He asked Tom what was the moaning of it. "The moaning of what?" asked Tom. "That design." "There?" 212 Stone brought him to a point from which the design was plainly visible. "That's curious." said Tom. "It must be in the blood. My stoat grandfather was a famous harper." The Governor was brought on the scene and the mat was sent to the scrap heap. Torn started another one and this produced a shamrock and at the same time it was found that the mats the other fellows were making all had various emblems, as round towers and wolf dogs, some of them very bad. The lads blamed the whole thing on the prison officials who failed to supply jute of a uniform shade. The mat making was stopped. Some of the tallows started growing moustaches. The prison officials objected. to no effect. Before the matter came before the Governor. Dot heard about it and he ordered the moustaches to be removed. He said if there was going to be a row it would be about something worth while. When the election of a Council wag he1d Day's election as chief wan almost unanimous. Only Tom Ashe and a few others opposed him. He did not at all resent the Opposition but when the election was over he did very strongly object to the efforts of the minority to nullify the decisions. of the Council. His attitude then, as later, wag that of a cometi-. 213 tutional autocrat. He Would allow the greatest latitude in discussion and, generally, he managed to talk us all into his way of thinking by his clear, commonsense arguments. When, However, he was likely to fail in this. he aid not hesitate to throw his own personally and worth intothe balance against a11 opposition. In other words: "you can talk about this as much as you like, the more the better and from every possible angle. In the last analysis, if you don't agree with me. then I quit. You must got someone else to do it." And they never could afford to let him quit Many years later I was present on an occasion whom there were two thousand delegates from all over Ireland gathered at a convention in. the Mansion House. Dow was in a hopeless minority on the question at issue. That question was the introduction of special login- lotion to great a pension to General O'Duffy who had been relieved of his position as Police Commissioners, With the exception of the half-dozen people on the platform, everyone of the two thousand people present was against the proposal. and the speeches in opposition were greeted with genera applause. Dev Was, or seemed to be very angry when he rose to speak. He said that in the ordhary course, O'Duffy as a Civil Servant, would have been entitled to a pension. Because, 214 however,tertian legislation handout been undated, he was not so entitled at the moment, Were they to be mean enough to take advantage of a flaw in the law because they did not like the man in question. There was some applause at this but it was very half, hearted. Then Dew throw down the trump card I have seen him use so often. He said, in effect "you are perfectly free to have your way in this matter but you will hays it without me. You can got someone else to take my Place." And, because they knew they could not let him go, know that he was a head and shoulder, over everyone else, they had to let himhave his way. Matters in the prison reached such a stage that the authorities decided to call a halt, We were lined up in the Central flail and a man from the Home Office read a document which was to the effect that we would still be allowed the privilege of talking during exercise but that otherwise we should conform to the prison rule of strict silence, and all orders of the officers were to be obeyed without question. When the visitor finished reading the document, Dot started to reply. He meat to voice a demand on behalf of all of us that we should be treated as prisoners of war but, before he ha said three words, the visitor sharply interrupted and said 215 no one was entitled to speak on behalf of the prisoners and that if any of us had any representations to make1 we should individually ask for an audience with the Governor. We were thenmarched to our cells. That evening, I got a note in Dev's perfectly neat hand writing to the afloat that the time had arrived to make a formal demand that we be treated as prisoners of war, or political prisoners, and that he intended to present this to the Governor at our next parade. If the demand was denied, we should refine to work as convicts or to associate with convicts. We had been expecting some such move as this, as we had previously learned he hadbeen in touch with the people at home and they had agreed to the proposal. Next morning, we were all agog as we were marched out to the exercise ground. When we wore lined up for searching, word passed along the 1ino that we were not to march off till Day hat given the word. The Governor evidently expected some trouble for he made one of his rare appearance on the exorcise ground, He looked rather pathetic in his light grey unit, his white hair and his still young fuse with the pallor of death as always. The search over1 the ranks closed. Stone gave us the order to march off. We stood still and I saw stones face tense and white. Dew stopped forward and handed the Governor a paper. 216 "I am demanding." he said "that we Irish Volunteers should be treated as prisoners of war." The Governor took the paper and did not reply. Dev went on: "We refuse any longer to accept the statue of convicts." The Governor still said nothing and Dev stepped back into the ranks. Stone and the Governor exchanged a few words in a whi1por. The hundred and twenty odd prisoners stood in absolute silence. stone turned to the warder. "All right." he said, "take those men back to their colic." So back to our cells we marched and we were not let out again. On Saturday, however, we were asked to give an under- taking that if we were allowed to go to Mass on Sunday we would not avail of the opportunity to try to escape or to make a demonstration. In accordance with our new policy, we refused to give this undertaking, though the loss of Mass was a very serious matter for the men, most of whom received the Sacrament ovary Sunday. This incident was oubssquent2y dis- torted out of all shape and was quoted by the Items Office as evidence of our ungodliness. When I got to Packhorse jail, a week or so later the Chaplain there gave a fantastic account of the affair wad described do Valera as an atheist and an anti-Christ. As a matter of fact, on that Sunday morning when 217 we were supposed to be so ungodly0 we all answered the Rosary given out by a man in each cell block. On Monday, we got word from Dev that he had given the prison authorities three days to meet our demands, At the cud of that time, if we were still looked in, we were to start breaking up the prison0 beginning with the windows the first night, the spyholes in the doors the second night the lamp screens the third night, and so on. On the night the ultimatum expired, I gave the signal for our black by singing "God Save Ireland", which was enthusiastically chorused by all the lads in the wing, after which we proceeded to break the windows, amidst a great deal of noise and Cheering. The people of the town, hearing the commotion, assembled around the Jail. on the second and third nights, we carried on as instructed, and then we were left to our own devices as to war to break next, We started taking the brick walls apart- a slow Job for the first brick but easy after that - and before I left, three of the cells in our block had been made into one by the removal of the walls. Jimmy Brennan, who had been acting as the priest's orderly, had been ordered to carry on with his usual duties of serving Mass and looking after the church. One morning, he ret4rned with the news that Dev, Tom Ashe and Eamon Duggan had 218 been removed from the prison. on the following morning, we heard Harry Boland's voice in the hall. "I'm off boys." he cried. He stopped at my cell door. "Keep the flag flying." he yelled in at me. "I've no flag." I said. "Keep it flying tether you have or not." he shouted and we all gave him a great cheer. He refund to go on a chain and they handcuffed him after a terrific fight. He was whirled off to Maidstone prison in Kent in an open car. He had previously written a note to his mother and he tossed it from the car. "What's that?" asked Stone who was sitting beside him. "Your death warrant." said Harry. The note was picked up by a woman walking the road. She Read: "If it is a mother who finds this note, will she send it to my mother1 Mrs. Boland at 15. Marino Crescent, Clontarf, Dublin, to tell her that her son Harry is being taken from Levee Jail to God knows where." The woman sent the note to Mrs. Boland and said she had a son fighting at the front and she had sympathy for another mother whose non was in peril. The note was printed on a handbill in Dublin and circulated throughout Ireland. 219 Harry was only half an hour gone when my cell door opened and two tatters advanced cautiously into the cell holding a wooden barricade in front of them. Behind them same two others with batons aloft. The two latter suddenly pounced, one from each side, and grabbed me. The others dropped the shutter and caught my logs. We all went down in a heap. "Let me up." I said, "and I'll walk." They let me up and I walked. I yelled encouragement to the others as I was marched out. I got a glimpse of Eoin MacNeill as I passed his cell. The dignified historian and uns4ereitr professor was sitting up on the window sill with his feet out through the window. He had put his bare feet out through the bars and then put his boots on so that he could not be dragged from the cell. Down in the office, five of us were put on a chain and taken in a bus to the railway station. While we were sitting in the railway waiting-room I saw a man on an opposite seat whom I took to be Michael Staines, but as he took no notice of us, I allowed I was mistaken. It was Staines, as we learned shortly, He had been sent from Dublin to watch developments. As soon as the train started, Tommy Bevan who, with his brother Charlie to, was on the chain, produced from some mysterious hiding place in his clothing a tuning fork. He 220 struckthis on the chain and corralled. "Doh, mi, soh, doh, what's it to be boys?" We started a Chorus and when it was concluded one of the warders, an old man named Dyan who was in charge, said it was very good. "You can sing as much as you. like in the train" he added, "but when we come to a station you'll have to keep quiet." He was a very decent, kindly, old man who had clearly selected the wrong profession. The other wader was a big healthy. burly fellow. One day when he had been move than usually coffeehouse, Harry had told him quite truly that he should have been at the front. He did not like us. I told Mr. Dyan that he was a very decent man anti we did not want to get him into trouble but we were going to sing at every station we came to. "Don't." he appealed, "I'll have to report you if you do." "Sure you'll have to report us." I said, "if you don't do it, we'll report ourselves. We don't know Where we're being taken to but we're going to let everyone know who we are." The poor old man was tenably distressed but his appeals 221 were in Vain. The train pulled up at a station and we alighted. it was a huge place with a vaulted roof. One of the fellows saw a name. "It's Brighton." he said. Dyan said we would have to go around to another platform. "All right." I said, "give us the note Tommy." We had agreed on "God Sate Ireland" as the only Irish national song the English would recognise. Tommy gave us the note and we burst into song as we marched up the platform. There were only Sever Of us but we sounded like Sever hundred in the great vaulted chamber. People came running from all sides end before we got round to our proper platform the warders had to force a passage for us through the crowd. We got into the train. Then I saw Stain Again. An excited little man with a Cockney accent was asking him questions about us, The little man forced his way to the carriage door and asked if we were Irish prisoners. "Sure we are." I said, "we're here because we were fighting for the freedom of a small nation, as you're supposed to be doing." "It's bleedin' shyme." he said."I'll got you some newspapers." Several people had crowded close to the carriage and 222 Paul Calligan slipped a note to staines. One of the warders pulled down the blinds but through the slit I saw the man with the Cockney accent coming back with the newspapers. I thrust my free hand out and took the papers, The burly warder snatched at them but I managed to get them behind my back. We had a grand straggle during which the blind flew The spectators crowded, round, crying out what a shame it was to beat a manacled prisoner like that. The train started off just as the warder retrieved the newspapers and received a chorus a boohs. from the crowd Poor old Dyan mopped his brow. 'It's hard lines on you, Mr. Dyan." I mild, "now, you see you'll have to report us." "It's awful." he said. "Don't worry, I replied, "they are going to wallop us in the new place, anyway, because we broke up Lewes jail. What is. coming to us from your report won't make it any worse." Towards evening, we arrived at a city. We alighted and wore hunted along a platform to a steamer. Lounging about Were many men in uniform who jeered at us. We boarded the steamer and Dyan hurried tie below decks. We passed a woman, leading a child. She was pregnant and, as we appeared, a look of horror came into her face. She drew 223 her child back as if she feared contamination. To her we wore criminals, enemies of society, outcasts. The steamer was a small boat, a tender plying between the mainland and the Isle of Wight. We sat on a bench by the wall in the bar- room which was crowied with men in uniform, the blue of the sailors, the khaki of the soldiers. "What's it to be?" asked Tommy Bevan, producing his tuning fork. "Let them have it." said his brother Charlie, The West's Awake". So we gave them "The West's Awake". "Sing on hurrah, 1st England Quake. We'll watch till death for Erin's sake." From the time we stated to sing, the others had fallen silent. They glared at us malevolently, As we finished the chorus, a British non-commissioned officer came forward belligerently. "I'd like to kick your heads off." he said, "I'd like to take you on right now, you dirty swine!" "I'm on a chain." I said "If I wasn't, you wouldn't soy that to me." A redheaded soldier stepped in front of the officer. He spoke in a rich Dublin accent: 224 "I'm not on a chain." he said, "why not take me on?" The N.C.O. turned to say something to him. "Cone on." cried the red-head, "take me on." At the same time he swung and struck so violently that the N.C.O. was liftedcl an off the ground before he fell. in a moment thorn was pandemonium. Hr. Dyan hurried us from that part of the ship. 225 CHAPTER XIV Tom Clarke one of the leaders of the Rising who was executed had previously endured fifteen years of English convict life. Heonce said to the writer: "If they ever put you in. do everything they tell you to do. It not. they will kill you or drive you insane." The Isis of Wight was flooded with late evening mellow sunshine. we drove through a countryside of green hedges, pleasant and peaceful, snug and prosperous. There was no sign of war, nor of any trouble at all until we Came to the gates of Parkhurst Prison. We marched through an exercise ground of vast extent, black and White black asphalt, white washed walls. The doctor was a Dublin man who thought the tuning fork was a great joke but that our prison conduct was a ghastly mistake. As he plied his stethoscope, he said to me: "You'd better take it easy here. It's not a bad place. If you go against the rules, they'll break you up." Outside In the hail while I waited for the doctor to finish with the others, I sat beside a grizzled, elderly lag. He talked through the side of ugly, thick lips. He learned I was one of the "Sin Fin" and asked why we had broken up 226 Lewes jail. "We didn't like it." I said. "You'd bettor like this place." he said, "it's easy here, but they'll kill you if yen kick up. Chum of mine got rough and after six weeks of it they took him off to Broadmoor- (jail for Insane criminals). This is the easiest place of them all. I know. I was in Portland and Dartmoor." "What's your sentence?" I asked. "Life." There was a wagers in his voice. "It was over my girl. I didn't mean to do her in." I learned later that it was a very brutal killing. He would have been hanged but that there was a doubt about pr vocation, He said they were thinking of letting him out to join the army. He knew the so and so army he was going to join. "But I imagine yours over age." I said. "What do you think I am?" "Well, say sixty." "I'm not forty." he said "I was twenty-four when I came in." As compared with Lewes, the cells in this jail were poor, grimy and ill-lighted. We were again in a wing long disused. By climbing on my stool to the window, I found my eyes on a 227 level with the grout where twenty or more prisoners were marching around in a ring. There were some strange specimens amongst them. One, who bore ankle irons. carried the spare of the chain on his arm. Another, a very tall personage who thought he looked distinguished, were a monocle. Yet smother was skillfully Juggling a number of stones which he had picked up. He had as many as six in the air at one time. The warders were bored, They paid little or no attention to the lags. My door opened and I climbed down off my stool. The visitor was an aged, weather-beaten chaplain. He told me he was Father Conway. "You're an Orangeman aren't you?" he said. I replied that I was not. He was surprised not by the reply, but by the mildness of it. He thought I should have hit the ceiling at the suggestion. He told me his father had been born in Ireland but he had never been there himself. The Irish, he said, were a great people in their loyalty to the faith and in the honour in which they held the clergy. He had heard we had bad trouble in Lewes but, no doubt, that was because we were treated badly. We need have no fear in Parkhurst because we would find things fairly easy. I thanked his and he left. A warder opened the door and beckoned to me with a jerk of his head. 228 "Hair Out." he said. "Who's cutting it" I asked. "Wot?" His eye-brows went up in surprise. "I said who's cutting my hair?" "Why." he said, "we've a special barber all the way from London, came specially for you." "What I Mean." I said. "is that I win allow only one of my own comrades to out my hair and we must have a machine of our own not used by the convicts." "Wefl1 I like that." he said, "came Along." "Sony, I can't." I said. "You know it means a report." "Sure." I replied. Heclosed the door. I Had Not Told Him That One Of Our fellows had contracted a loathsome disease in Dartmoor from one of these clipping machines. That was Saturday. On Sunday morning we went to Mass. There were only twelve Of us, I found, in the prison, Some- one whispered that the others were scattered in various prisons throughout the country. All twelve of us were seated together in the front pews. When we marched out of the church, we emerged on the vast exercise ground. There were about fifteen hundred prisoners lined up on parade and, for 229 the first time, we had a view of the funny sailor-like uniforms worn by the preventive detention prisoners. George plunkett, who was behind me, whispered: "We're riot exercising with them." "I know." I said, and asked if he would give us the order to fall out. "No." he said, "you're first in the line. You give it." We were marched across the square and into line with a section of the convicts. It was a beautiful, sunny morning and the Governor, wearing a new, gaily, ribboned straw hat, was standing out in front. As we came to a halt, I said to the warder in charge of us: "I want to speak to the Governor." The warder said: "No, no. You can't do that. You put your name down." I shouted at the Governor: "Mr. Governor." I Said." I want to speak to you." As if moved by a machine, the heads of all the convicts tuned in our direction. The Governor frowned and glared at me. "All right, officer." he said, "carry On." "Extend on the loft." said the officer, "unbutton." 230 I stepped forward and turned to face our men. They were standing stockstill. and they seemed to be far more at their case than I felt. "Irish Volunteers!" I cried,"two paces to the rearl March!" They Fell Back and I regained my place. The Governor was waving His arms. "Officers!" he cried, "surround those men!" The other convicts Were moving relentlessly and chatter- ing. The warden name running with batons swinging. "All right." I cried to the Governor, "I'll march them Off." "To the separate cells." cried the Governor. I gave the boys the order to march and, led by a warder, we passed the long lines of astonished lags. Some looked frightened, some delighted, and all terribly excited. My separate call was almost Completely dark. The only light came from a square of thick pavement glass, high up in the rear wa1l. there was no furniture and nothing mone- able. A raised portion of the floor wan the bad and a circular block of wood sunk in the floor served both as stool and table. After about an hour's solitude, I rang the bell. A warder peered in through the spyhole. "What about something to read.' I Asked. 231 "Nothing doing" he said, "you can ask the Governor when you're brought before him." "When will, that be?" "Can't Say. Tomorrow maybe." I spent a gloomy Sunday. In the afternoon a warder cane and told me to undress. He took away my clothes giving me instead two sheet and a blanket, When I asked him for an explanation, he merely said it was half-past four. "Time to go to body" I said, "Just that." He was a large plain-faced, unimaginative, taciturn man. He Doubles-locked the door when he left. No matter hew I manipulated the bedclothes, the boards were still hard and they got harder as the night went on At six in the morning, a different warder opened up and handed me my Clothes, taking away the sheets and blanket. Then he gave me a small basin, made of papier mache, and poured a pint of water inte it. He handed me a slice of soap ant a dry towel. He was factious. "Hope you enjoy your bath." he said, adding that I had better hurry up, as he would be back for the basin, etc, in a few minutes. Answering my question about the basin, he 232 said it was made of poplar mache so that I couldn't break it and cut my throat. Shortly after breakfast, the usual cocoa and bread,- the last I was to enjoy for acme time - the Governor came in. I know it was unusually early for such a visit. "I'm sorry you made that demonstration yesterday." he waid. "May be if I had had a word with you beforehand, it might have been avoided, Do you realise it is a serious offence?" expand so." "You could be charged. with mutiny." he said, "and that would mean the lash, but I'm not going to have that done. In fact, if you agree to abide by the rules and get your men to do likewise it may be possible to overlook the whole thing." "I'm Sorry." I said, "but I can't do that.