WS1698_PART_1

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  • ROINN COSANTA. BUREAU OF MILITARY HISTORY, 1913-21. STATEMENT BY WITNESS. DOCUMENT NO W.S. Witness Liam de R—iste No. 2 Janemount, Sunday's Well, Cork. Identity. Member, Coiste Gnotha, Gaelic League. Member, D‡il ƒireann, 1918-1923. Subject. National Activities, 1899-1918. Irish Volunteers, Cork City, 1913-1918. Conditions,if any, Stipulatedby Witness. Nil. File No FormB.S.M.2 STATSUENT OF LIAM DR ROISTE. CERTIFICATE BY THE DIRECTOR OF THE BUREAU. This statement by Liam de Roiste consists of 385 pages, signed on the last page by him. Owing to its bulk it has not been possible for the Bureau, with the appliances at its disposal. to bind it in one piece, and it has, therefore, for convenience in stitching, been separated into two sections, the first, consisting of pages 1-199, and the other, of pages 200-385, inclusive. The separation into two sections baa no other significance. The break between the two sections occurs in the middle of a sentence, the last words in section I, on page 199, being "should be", and the first in section II, on page 200, being "be forced". A certificate in these terms, signed by me as Director of the Bureau, is bound into each of the two parts. McDunphy DIRECTOR. (M. McDunphy) 27th November, 1957. STATIENT BY LIAM DE R0ISTE 2. Janemount, Sundav's Woll. Cork. This statement was obtained from Mr. de Roiste, at the request of Lieut.-Col. T. Halpin, on behalf of the Bureau of Military History, 26 Westland Row, Dublin. Mr. do Hoists was born in Fountainstown in the Parish of Tracton, Co. Cork, in Juno, 1882. His baptismal name was William Roche. His parents wore National Teachers, His statement is recorded hereunder:- "Before the end of the century I was residing in Cork City and from 1901 to 1910 was employed as a teacher in Skerry's College, Cork, and subsequently employed in a similar capacity under the Cork County Technical Instruction Committee up to 1920. my latter appointment necessitated travelling to and teaching in various towns in Co. Cork. From my youth I have boon actively connected with various Irish-Ireland, Literary and Industrial Organisations, in moat of which I functioned as Honorary Secretary or other Executive appointment. During most of this time I made it a practico to keep a fairly comprehensive diary and other notes of the activities of the different organisations with which I was associated and which now enable me to refresh my memory on many incidents and events which otherwise would, perhaps, be forgotten. In the pamphlet issued by the Bureau of Military History it states, inter alia, on page 2: 'The military history of 1913-21 cannot be properly understood and assessed without a knowledge of other events which had an intimate bearing on the national 2. resurgence of that period, and for that reason the Bureau is Interested In every contributory fact or development reaching back in many cases to at least the beginning of the century'. I thoroughly concur with this view. and agree that the historian of the future, unless he has a complete grasp of the early developments, will not be in a position to portray the stirring period of our history from 1913 to 1921 in its proper perspective. Keeping the above in mind, I, therefore, propose to embody in my statement incidents, events and developments from as far back as 1899, of which I am personally acquainted and which, I venture to submit, helped in no small way the great resurgence of the Nation in the later years. I do not propose to doal in an detail with the promotion the Irish languago or the activities Of the Gaelic League, for the reason that I consider there are sufficient records and material readily available to enable an assessment to be made in this connection in future years. 1899. Cork. Young Ircland Socioty loundod. Obiect. to aid in the attainment of the sovereign independence of I1aniq, by propagating the principles, of the "Young Irelanders" of i848, fostering the language, music and national traditions; encouraging the study of Irish History; countering "West Britonism" in every form. The chief mover in founding the Society was John M.O'Keeffe (Sb‡n î Cuiv) and among the early members were Batt, Kelleher, Robert Warren, Eugene Power, William O'Herliby, Daniel Tierney, Terence NacSwiney, Fred Cronin, Robert Fitzgerald, Michael Radley, William Curtin, Maurice Conway, John O'Keeffe, Patrick O'Sullivan, William O'Sullivan. 3. The Chairman was John Roynane; Treasurer, John Crowley; Secretary, Liam Roche. 1899. Sundav November 12th. "Pro-Boer" meeting of very large numbers, organised by the Society, held in Cork Cornmarket, Anglesea Street. A "Transvaal Committee" had been formed. Its members marched to the meeting behind a Boor flag in semi-military formation. Eugene Crean, at the time Mayor of Cork and Member of Parliament, presided over the meeting. The principal speakers were Miss Naiad Gonne, John Daly, Mayor of Limerick, Charles Doran of Cove, Arthur Griffith, J.C. Flynn, H.P. letters, expressing sympathy with the object of the meeting, were received from Rev Father Kavanagh, O.F.M., historian of "The Insurrection of 1798"; Maurice Healy, M.P., Captain Donnellan, M.P., Michael Davitt, J.F.X. O'Brien, M.P., James J. O'Kelly, M.P., and Jeremiah Howard, Chairman, Cork County Council. 1899. Members of the 'Transvaal Committee", through an intermediary in Paris, offered themselves as volunteers to fight with the Doers. They received no reply to their communication. Reporting the meeting, the "Cork Constitution", organ of the Unionists, vehemently denounced the proceedings. They were "silly", "hurtful", "inspired by hatred, unreasoning hatred of England". It adverted to the "inconsistency of the Parliamentarians", who, while wooing the sympathy of Englishmen to obtain "Home Rule", sided with England's enemies and associated with "extremist elements" in Ireland. The speeches that had been delivered were "treasonable". Some of the older members of the Young Ireland Society had been connected with the Irish Republican Brotherhood - the Fenian organisation. 4. 1900. Early in 1900, it was suggested the Society should undertake the. erection of a National Monument in Cork, in honour of the men of 1798, 1848, 1867. The foundation stone had been laid in 1898. The project was taken up and house-to-house collections were made by members of the Society. The older men gradually made this a chief object of the Society and counselled "diplomacy" in setting forth the meaning of "Sovereign Independence". The younger men disagreed and, in December 1900, severed their connection with the Society. In due course, the monument on the Grand Parade was erected. It was unveiled on St. Patrick's Day, 1906, by Rev. Father Kavanagh, then President of the Young Ireland Society, The oration was delivered by Rev. Father Thomas of the Capuchin Order, Holy Trinity, Cork. 1901. Januarv 2nd. Seven of the young men who had been in the Young Ireland Society met to form a new society, as "a branch of the National Organisation, Cumann na nGaedheal". It was decided to call the Society "The Cork Celtic Literary Society". So that there would be no ambiguity regarding its aim, it put as its object: "TO STRIVE FOR THE ESTABLISHMENT OF AN IRISH REPUBJJC". Immediate means proposed were:-) "(1) A - Adopting and propagating the principles of the United Irishmen. B. Working for the restoration of the national language. "(2). The study and teaching of Irish History" "In an other matters the Society adopts the objects of Cumann na nGaedheal". The seven young men were: Terence MacSwiney, Dan Tierney, Batt Kelleher, Fred Cronin, Bob Fitzgerald, Michael Radley, Lisa Roche. 5. 1901. Kalleher was Chairman, Tierney, Treasurer; Roche, Secretary0 Our Chairman suggested the idea of a "Manuscript Journal", to which members would, contribute articles notes on current topics, stories, poems. It was called""ƒire îg"; read at monthly meetings of the Society, and was a feature of the Society's work for several years. Arising out of an article that a ppeared. in the first number, a discussion took place and a resolution was passed: "That we call on the members of the Cork Corporation to dispense with the usual vote of thanks to the outgoing Lord Mayor in consequence of his action in attending a reception given to the Queen of England in Dublin", The Lord Mayor, the first who bore the title in Cork, was Sir Daniel Hegarty, The Queen's visit to Dublin was publicised as "in grateful recognition" of the valour of the Irish soldiers in the British Army fighting against the Boers. The Cork Corporation meeting for the election of a new Lord Mayor was held on Wednesday. January 23rd 1901. Queen Victoria had died the previous day The customary vote of thanfs was dispensed with, as we had suggested ;but a resolution expressing regret at the death of the Queen, proposed by a Unionist member of the Council, was carried unanimously! The new Lord Mayor was Alderman Edward Fitzgerald, afterwards Sir Edward Fitzgerald, Baronet. At a later meeting, the Cork Corporation, on a suggestion conveyed to it by our Society, decided that "in all streets to be named, or re-named, in future, the names of such streets shall be in Irish as won as in English". One Sunday in the summer of this year (1901), four or five of us were in the country - Fountainstown, my native place. 6. Someone suggested that we may be able to procure a shotgun. I said a fried of mine, "Miah" Aherne, had a few of them. We called to the house. Miah was absent, but one of his sisters gave me a gun and cartridges. It Was a double-barreled breech- loader. None of us knew how to operate it! butt after a time we were able to use it; each of us fired a few shots, our target being a white paper on a clump of furze! The underlying assumption was that we were "Soldiers of Ireland" preparing for "the Day". Miah Aberne was a very well-known character In Co. Cork, a sturdy Nationalist. He became a member of Cork Co. Council and stood for election as a Member of Parliament on one occasion October 1901. Re-organising for the winter, the Society had secured a number of new members. It Was arranged that an Irish language class, open to non-members, be organised. This class, subsequently, brought tinny others into the "Celtic", some of whom became its staunchest adherents 1902. Early in the year 1902, the project of holding International Exhibition in Cork was mooted and there were rumours that King Edward VII was to be invited to open the Kxhibition. "Royal visits" to Ireland wore unwelcome to Irish Nationalists in general; but Parliamentarian Nationalists were in a dubious position. They were afraid of showing perfervid loyalty to the King. But neither could they, on their declared demand for "Home Rule within the Empire", show antagonism. The majority of the people followed the political leaders of the day. March. 1902. Miss Maud Gonne was elected President and Major John McBride, Vice-President of our Celtic Literary Society. 7. 1902. Arrangements for St. Patrick's Day demonstration in Cork were often a source of bickerings between organisations. On this occasions as things turned out, the Young Ireland Society became the organising body. The "Celtic" joined with them. Miss Gonne was to be the principal speaker. The secretaries of Cumann ma nGaedheal had written asking "the Celtic" to help in making the demonstration a success. In addition to speaking at the St. Patrick's Day celebration, Miss Gonne lectured to a large audience in the Assembly Rooms, Cork, and on the following day proceeded to Skibbereen, where there was also a Young Ireland Society. Returning from Skibbereen, she established in Cork a branch of "Inghinidhe ma hƒireann", which had been originated In Dublin the previous year. The "Inghinidhe" in Cork occupied the same rooms as the Celtic Literary Society and were identical with it in aims and objects0 An Irish language class was formed and one of those who helped it was an old '67 man, an Irish speaker, Charles O'Connell Several of the young ladies who joined were daughters of men who had been connected with the Fenian organisation. The second president of the "Inghinidhe" was Miss Margaret Goulding, later Lire. Buckley, who figured prominently in the case which came before the nigh Courts in 1948, in connection with the disposal of the Sinn Fein funds. Other members were Misses Annie and Susan Walsh who, sisters-in-law of Tomas MacCurtain, travelled extensively in the United States, after his mua7der in 1920, to give the American people details of the Terrorist regime in Ireland, An incident which created a big sensation at the time occurred on April 7th, 1902, in connection with a musical comedy called "The Dandy Fifth", performed in the Cork Opera House. Miss Gonne had told us it was "a recruiting stunt" with characters of the "stage Irishman" type appearing. 8. 1902. A dozen or so of the members of "the Celtic" went to the Opera House. There was also a group of students from the Queen's College. The performers were howled down, Songs9 in Irish and English, Were sung by the gallery audience, Biases, groans, shouts, laughter, whistling continued without intermission. Cheers were given for an Irish Republic0 for the Doers, for John MacBride and the "fish Brigade". When the audience emerged from the Opera Rouse, there was a police baton charge. Our chairman, Dan Tierney, hit on the head by a policeman's policeman'sbaton, was rather severely hurt. The newspapers gave the affair wide publicity, under scare headings, The political aspect put "pep" into the story. It formed a subject for discussion at the Cork Corporation, one member referring sarcastically to "Chocolate Soldiers"., There was in Paris at this time a Comite Franco-lrlandais. Its secretary sent us a letter of congratulation on our action. Some time subsequently, Diarmuid Lynch, on behalf of the Philo-Celtic Society, Now York, sent a sheaf of cuttings from American newspapers. The Philo-Celtic had imitated our example and had cleared "stage Irishmen" off the boards of New York theatres, not without getting into trouble with the police. In this month of April, 1902, the Dublin Castle Government proclaimed the United Irish League "dangerous organisations". "Coercion" was announced in large-type headings in the newspapers. A "Crimes Act" was to be put into force. The United Irish league, founded by William O'Brien a few years previously, was a "constitutional organisation". In Cork City at the time it was quite inactive, As a mark of defiance of the proclamation, a United Irish League meeting was hold in Cork Cornmarket on April 27th. William O'Brien spoke at it, challenging "the Castle" to do its worst. Next day, he visited the International Exhibition grounds and was received with an honour by lord Mayor Fitzgerald. 9, 1902. On 1st May, the Exhibition was formally opened by the Earl of Bandon. The city was profusely decorated with flags and bunting. The Union Jack ins conspicuous song the flags. The week following, Prince Henry of Prussia and the Duke of Connaught visited the Exhibition. They were attended by a military escort. They drove in open carriages through the city. At the reception accorded them, the Lord Mayor expressed the hope that King Edward VII and the Emperor of Germany would visit the Exhibition. Augustine Roche was high Sheriff of the city at this time. Be was a leading light in the proclaimed "dangerous organisation", the United Irish League. He, too, met and welcomed "their Royal Highnesses". On May 2Oth the old-time Cork ceremony of "throwing the dart" took place. At the attendant banquet, the toast of "The King" was proposed by the Lord Mayor. There was not a dissentient voice raised by any of our public men. The Celtic Literary Society- got printed, and sent to a number of prominent Nationalists, a leaflet expressing a protest against the action of the lord Mayor. Among replies received was one from Eugene Crean, M.P., from the House of Commons, assuring us of his sympathy with cur protest. On Hay 29th, the Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, Earl Cadogan, visited the Exhibition. The "Examiner" reported he got "a cool but respectful reception"; the "Constitution" that he got "an enthusiastic reception". Certainly, crowds on the footpaths cheered him as he passed. A little incident that occurred was not reported. At the rooms 18, Great Georges Street, members of Inghinidhe in hlireann had green flags bordered with black crepe hung out of the windows. The police, directed by Read Constable Corry, rush the rooms and captured the flags. When they had departed, a blackboard use displayed, on which was written: "Slaves lie down and kiss your chains". The police came again, but the young 10. 1902. ladies had barricaded the door ant the blackboard remained. Police watched the rooms during the day and detectives shadowed Individual members of the Celtic Literary Society Early in July 1902, a Convention of the United Irish league was held in Limerick. William O'Brien and John Redmond spoke at it, Redmond said the right of the Irish people to rule Wet own land was worth fighting for on the field of battle, but, "of course", ho added, "no one asked the Irish people to do that At that time, or later, he laid down the dictum that "separation (of Ireland from Britain) was "impossible and undesirable"0 O'Brien declared he did not care who would save the country, or by what methods, as long as they were honourable methods and promised success. later, at a meeting of the Irish Parliamentary Patty in Dublin, be declared: "It was not now a question between English rule in Ireland and 'Home Rule', but between "Home Rule" and an "Irish Republic". His argument was that, if the British Government did not concede Rome Rule, young Irishmen of the future would aim at the establishment: of a Republic, even by force of arms. He reiterated this in Cork, November 1902. In connection with the Exhibition, an International Boat Race was held. The German Emperor, Kaiser Wilhelm II, sent a trophy to be competed foe, as a German crew was Competing. There wore many Germans in Cork for the event and a German band paraded through the streets Chief Justice O'Brien, known as "Pother the Packer", and Augustine Roche were together at the race. Next day, In the City Courthouse, "amidst tremendous applause", the Chief Justice read a telegram received from the Kaiser. Japanese warships also visited Cork Harbour and many of their crews visited the city. Other visitors to the city were George Wyndham, Chief Secretary of the "Dublin Castle Government" of the time, and, before the closing on October 31, Earl Dudley, lord Lieutenant of Ireland. 11. 1902. In September, Michael Davitt spoke at a meeting of the United Irish League in Cork. Representatives of the Young Ireland Society and Cork Trades Council were present. A sequel was, that a special meeting of the Young Ireland Society was held, at which it was declared the Society did not endorse Parliamentarianism but approved of the action of the United Irish League in protesting against the reception given to Wyndham by the Lord Mayor. It was also stated Michael Davitt bad promised to obtain support for the erection of the National Monument, (But, the Lord Mayor had also subscribed to the Lund for thd monument!) The Secretary. of the Young Ireland Society in Limerick, D.L. Meany, wrote to "the Celtic" urging that we should make some statement regarding the action of the Young Ireland Society. We were not unanimous, but a resolution was passed and a cow sent to Meany, Visitors from Dublin during the year to "the Celtic" included Peter White, then manager of Griffith's "United Irishman", Denis Devereux, who, with Griffith, had launched the journal, Thomas Shine Cuffe, Henry Roche9 secretary of Dublin "Celtic", and members of Cumann na nGaedheal in Tullamore. Diarmuid Lynch, home from New York, also called to seewus. Another vas a Captain O'Donnell, stated to have been secretary to General do Wet of Boer War fame. In September 1902, our Celtic Literary Society received a notice that a Convention of Cumann na nGaedheal was to be held in Dublin on 26th October ensuing. On the proposal of Terence MacSwiney, it was decided to send Edward Sheehan, M.A., as delegate to the Convention. Subsequently, Liam de Roiste was appointed as a seconddelegate. Early in October, it was announced in the press that a delegation from the Irish Parliamentary Party - Redmond, Dillon and Davitt - were proceeding to the United States to collect. funds for the Party. Our President9 Miss Gonne, desired that we should organise ananti-Parliamentarian demonstration in 12. 1902. in Cork on the eve of their departure. We considered we could riot do this effectively, Instead, we formulated a resolution which was sent to the Executive of Cumann na nGaedhea to branches and clubs affiliated with it, and to the Irish- American press, It was in the following terms: "The time having arrived when the advocates of Parliamentarianism must give way to a moreresolute policy than that of speech-making in the English Parliament,: we call upon all true friends of Ireland in America to withdraw their support from the Irish Parliamentary Party, as its policy aims at making Ireland a loyal province of the British Empire - a result incompatible with the establishment of an Irish Republic". The Executive placed this resolution on the Agenda of the Convention. Our delegates were instructed to propose a change in the stated aim of the organisation: instead of the words: "To advance the cause of Ireland's National Independence", to substitute "To strive for the establishment of an Irish Republic The Convention was held in the rooms of the Dublin Celtic Literary Society, 196 Great Brunswick St. Joseph Ryan, who was a contributor to the "United Irishman", presided.. Delegates numbered shout fifty, nearly all young men. Our Cork resolutions were the principal matters before the Convention. On the question of declared aim of Cumann na nGaedheal, it was stated that the President of the Organisation, John O'Lean, did not favour a change as "Sovereign Independence I was a wider term and more democratic statement of purpose than Republic". The proposed change was not adopted. On the resolution relating to the Parliamentary Party, Arthur Griffith made a roost remarkable statement, outlining what came to be called, for a time, "The Hungarian Policy", and which subsequently developed into "The Sinn Fein Policy" and led to the founding of the Sinn Fein Organisation. l3. 1902. He proposed as an amendment to the Cork resolution: "Whereas, Cumann ma nGaedheal, while holding and teaching that the objective of all Irish national effort must be the restoration of Ireland to her ancient status as a Sovereign Independent State, denies the assertion of the Irish Party delegates in America that there is no practical temporary alternative to the policy they advocate. "Whereas, the passage of the Act of Union over 100 years ago has been conclusively admitted to have been a 'nullity and a fraud's whereas, since the operation of the Act of Union millions of the Irish people have perished of famine, or have been forced into exile; and, whereas, the attendance of an Irish Parliamentary Party at Westminster has been a tacit acceptance of that 'nullity and fraud' in principle and has been unproductive of good and powerless to prevent the evils alluded to - Be it resolved: That we call upon our countrymen abroad to withhold assistance from the upholders of a useless, degrading andd emoralising policy until such time as members of the Irish Party substitute for it the policy of the Hungarian Deputies of 1861, and refuse to attend the British Parliament, or to recognise its right to legislate for Ireland, and remain at home to help in promoting Ireland's interests and to aid in guarding its national rights". The Cork resolution was adopted, but the Convention was unanimous in urging Arthur Griffith to develop his proposal regarding "the Hungarian Policy" and explain it fully in the "United Irishman". (This ho did in the first six months of 1904. The articles were then published as a brochure, with the title, "The Resurrection of Hungary¡. Within a few months twenty thousand copies of the booklet bad been sold; 14. 1902. On the report of the proceedings at the Convention a long discussion took place In the Cork Celtic Literary Society. Ultimately, it was decided to urge the Executive of Cumann ma nCaedheal to get into communication with the Irish Parliamentary Party with a view to getting that Party to adopt "the Hungarian Policy". 1903. At a general meeting of "the Celtic", on the proposition of Edward Lorton, it was decided "to invite representatives, of National and Labour organizations to a conference for the purpose of forming an Industrial Association". Thus began the formation of. the Cork Industrial Development Association, which continued in operation for nearly 40 years. The Conference met in the rooms of the Celtic Literary Society on Sunday, February 8th, 1903. Those present were of very varied affiliations; many who, in political outlook and in public life, were often violently opposed. Augustine Roche, High Sheriff, presided. He attended as representative of the South Parish branch of the Gaelic League; among others present were: George Crosbie, proprietor of the "Cork Examiner"; C.J. Dianne, Justice of the Peace, Leather Manufacturer; C.M. O'Connell, of O'Connell's Saw Mills; J. McFerran and James Curtin, of Cork Spinning and Weaving Coy.; O'Brien, Manager, Silverspring Starch Company; Alderman Jeremiah Kelleher sand Councillor Patrick Lynch, Cork Trades! Council; Michael Egan, Coachbuilders' Society; Charles McCarthy, Master Plumber; representatives of Gaelic League branches and some members of our own Society. The Conference appointed an organising committee with George Crosbie as Chairman, Augustine Roche and Edward Lorton as Treasurers and Liam de Roiste as Honorary Secretary. Some discussions took place at the organising committee 15. 1903 as to whether Lord Mayor Fitzgerald should be asked to call a public meeting to launch the Industrial Association in a formal public way. The Lord Kayor, however, was otherwise engaged, in promoting the International Exhibition for the Lecond year. In April, what was described as a "great" Industrial Conference was held in Dublin. It received wide publicity. Lord Pirrie of Belfast presided. Many "noble lords" attended, The King bad lent his patronage to it0 Lord Mayor Fitzgerald was present. The "Cork Constitution" hoped our Cork Association would not be antagonistic to the Dublin project, to which "His Gracious Majesty bad extended his congratulations". Nothing came of the Dublin Conference. January: At a meeting of "the. Celtic", it was decided to orgahise a Hurling Club, to be called the "ƒire îg" Club, and to seek affiliation with the Cork Co. Board of the Gaelic Athletic Association., The purpose behind this was to make an effort to "reform" the County Board. Ultimately, through the action of the "ƒire îg" Club, J.J. Walsh was elected chairman of the Co. Board., March Ate Geelic League meeting in Dublin, John Sweetman said: "we could not at present drive the English out of Ireland by force of arms", but "We hope to do so in the future". Griffith, in the "United Irishman" endorses this view. April: It is announced that the King and Queen of England are to visit Ireland. Cork International Exhibition Committee, at a meeting on April 3rd, presided over by the lord Mayor, expressed the hope that they will "grace Cork with their presence". On the the, Queenstown Urban Council declared it would welcome the King and hopes he may come again Soon "to open the. House of lords and Commons of Ireland in Dublin". ("The Old Rouse in College Green"). 16. 1903, May 19th. "Cork Constitution" placard heading: "Meeting in Dublin. Parliumentarians and Extremists". This was a meeting of the Irish Parliamentary Party, The Lord Mayor of Dublin, Harrington was present. Mrs. MacBride, Maire Quinn, Edward Martyn, Seamus MacManus and others of Cumann na nCaedheal sympathies appeared at the meeting. Mrs. MacBride ascended the platform and asked the lord Mayor if he were going to protest against an address of loyalty to the King from Dublin Corporation. He refused to answer and there was some disturbance. The "Constitution" refers to "the Irish Republican Brotherhood and - Sisterhood; the so-called "Daughters of Erin" "Cork Examiner" - "Mrs. MacBride's party .... are swelled heads and literary revolutionists". May 28tht The International Exhibition was opened by Earl Dudley. Declarations made that King Edward would be gladly received, June: The Celtic Literary Society sent a circular letter to the press and to various public bodies regarding the King's visit. It was published in the "Cork Examiner". Cork Co. Council and Cork Board of Guardians marked it "read". It was generally treated with contempt, but Kiimallock Urban Council endorsed it. William O'Brien's paper, "The Irish People", considered it "jejune - a thing of no importance". But, on July 18th, O'Brien had a letter in the press, in which he says he has always been opposed to loyal addresses. "The Leader" virulently attacks "the Tin Pikers". June 23rd: At a public meeting, Lord Mayor Fitzgerald declares: "in the name of 80,000 citizens of Cork" ho will welcome the King and Queen to the city. A committee to decorate the streets for their visit was formed. 12, 1903. June 2Zth: The United Irish League in Cork passed a mild resolution of protest against the action of the Lord Mayor. June: 28th: Wolfe Tone demonstration, under the auspices. of the Young Ireland Society, was held in Great Georges St. C.J. Dorm of Cove was to be the principal speaker. Members of the Celtic J4terary Society approached him and suggestod he should make some reference to the Lord Mayor's doclaration. Be advised that we ourselves address the meeting. On this, and with the consent of the Young Ireland Society promoters of the demonstration, Edward Lorton and Liam deRoiste spoke to a resolution of protest against the declaration of the Lord Mayor. July 3rd: A motion to present a loyal address to the King: was defeated at Dublin Corporation. The meeting broke up in disorder. July 9th: Cork Co. Council decided not to present an address to the King. James O'Neill of Kinsale was one of the principal speakers against professions of loyalty. July 24th The King and Queen visited Maynooth College. According to press accounts, they were loyally received by the President, Dr. Mannix. August 1st: The King and Queen in Cork; visited the Exhibition. The city was profusely decorated. There were large crowds on the streets and great enthusiasm was manifested, As a result of the visit, the Lord Mayor was crested a baronet. August 26th A Gaelic league Conference was held in the Assembly Rooms, South Mall, today. At this Conference the idea was broached of founding an Irish Surer School, or Summer College of Irish, in Ballingeary, Co. Cork. August 29th: Received a copy of O'Donovan's Roasa's "United Irishman", sent me from New York. It publishes the circular, we had sent out from "the Celtic" in reforence to the King's 18. visit. Also, the report of half-yearly general meeting of our Society and some letters which Fred Cronin had addressed to Roan. It appears to have been hoses himself who sent the "United Irishman" to me. September 3rd; General meeting of Celtic Literary Society! C.G. Doran of Cove elected President; Major And. Mrs MacBri4o, Vice-Presidents; Brian Kelleher, Eon. Secretary. A long discussion took place regarding a change in the stated object of the Society. The proposed change was: "To endeavour to restore Ireland to its rightful position of Sovereign Independence" instead of "To aid in the establishment of an Irish Republic". At this meeting, the proposed change was accopted by a majority.: at a subsequent meeting, the original statement of aim was restored. ntsiviber3StJs A procession, in commemoration of Robert: Emmet, organised by the Young Ireland Society, was held. It was a large procession, but not orderly In formation. It is some answer to the protestations of loyalty to the King of England recently avowed in Cork. An Emmet celebration we also held In Dublin, organised by Cumann tin nGaedheal. The "Independent" reports that 80,000 men matched in perfect order and discipline. Thousands of athletes, carrying hurleys on their shoulders, in the manner, of rifles1 wore In. the procession. It was noted that no members of the Irish Parliamentary Party attended. September 25th: In the course of a letter, written from Paris, lauding the Celtic Literary Society, Major John MacBride declares: "The future of Ireland will badecided Inside the next twenty years. Prepare to play your part". October "The Celtic" was successful in getting the "United Irishman" taken Into Cork Free Library. 19. 1903. November. 20th: In reply to on invitation sent him to attend a lecture on the Industrial Revival, by Lien do Roiste, in Cork Assembly Rooms, Rev. Father Thomas, O.S.F.C., writes: "Your interest in the revival of a thorough Irish spirit in our people and your efforts for the industrial regeneration of our country deserve whole-hearted support and is bound to redound to the credit of your admirable organisation - the, Cork Celtic Literary Society. I pray God to bless your efforts and to forward your work - the noblest and the best to which true patriots can devote their energies and talents". November6th; A long letter in the press from Mr. William O'Brien, announcing his intention of resigning as Member of Parliament; of discontinuing publication of his weekly paper "The Irish People", and of his retirement from public life. His difference with the Irish Parliamentary Party has arisen over the land Act: "the Wyndham Act", as it is caned, William is enthusiastial1y In favour of the Act, Others, particularly John Dillon, are not so favourably disposed. Since his announcement, there have been many meetings of O'Brien's supporters; votes of confidence in him passed; long orations of laudation; strong denunciations of the "Freeman's Journal". If one were to take it all seriously, a crisis of the first magnitude in Irish political history! But, William will probably reconsider his decision, in view of the demands of his loyal supporters (The break-away of O'Brian from the Irish Party and the United Irish League had effects in Cork city and county long after; even to the time of the formation of the Cork Corps, Irish Volunteers, 1913, and in the general election of 1918). December 4th: The lecture on the Industrial Revival is published in the "Cork Sun" as a leading article, Diarmuid Lynch. from New York, writes to me, to say he has been elected President of the Gaelic league in that city. 20. 1903 December 12th: John A. Milroy, Chairman of the Debating Guild, Cork Young Men's Society, lectures in "the Celtic" rooms on "1803 and 1903 in Ireland, a comparison", an excellent lecture. December 29th: Controversy in the United Irish League in Cork regarding the calling of "a National Convention". O'Brien demands it; Redmondopposes it. Men who are tired of those party political squabbles are being attracted to the Gaelic League and Cumannna nGaedheal. Parliamentarianism seems doomed. It has killed, or is killing itself. Good Irishmen have supported the policy. Nevertheless, it is d emoralising to Irish nationality. (In later years, William O'Brien himself published a booklet entitled "The Downfall of parliamentarianism". 1904. January1st Father Augustine, O.S.F.C., asks me to call on him. He Wants me to take up the secretaryship of the Munster Training College of Irish, which is to be established in Ballingeary. He is one of the membersof the organising committee. (On his urging, I consented to this, and from 1904 to 1936 acted as Secretary of the College: Colaiste Muinteoireachta na Mumban. Its progress is a story in itself!) An article I sent to the "United Irishman" is published by Griffith as "Editorial Notes". A murder (if it is murder) was committed in the city on the 28th ult. A man named John O'Keeffe was thrown into the River tee. So it is reported. The "Examiner", today, publishes someclippings from English newspapers. In these it is stated that "a Secret Society" is at the bottom of the affair that the murdered man was not regarded with favour by the Young Ireland Society; Some English newspapers will publish anything for a sensational effect and particularly anything that may discredit Irish Nationalists. Who concocted the story? 21. 1904.n The grain of truth, Known to very few, is that there were two men, bearing the name, John O'Keeffe, in the Young Ireland Society; Sean, not, on the reporting staff of the "Freeman's Journal", and the other an engineer in the Cork Waterworks. The latter was a member of the Irish Republican Brotherhood. He did have some difference with the Young Ireland Society and left it Some time ago He is not the murdered man, however.. The story is a fabrication and a libel of the "Central News Agency". January 3rd. "The Celtic", having been without a Chairman for some time. I was tonight elected Chairman, on proposition of Terence MacSwiney, with Edward Lorton as Vice-Chairman. The Society is at its lowest ebb, The number of our members "to aid in the establishment of an Irish Republic" is 151. But we are in good spirits, a new year dawning! The 15 were: Liam. de Roiste, Edward Lorton, Terence MacSwiney, Fred Cronin, Denis O'Mahony, Daniel T. O'Sullivan, Brian Kelleher, Patrick Donal Cronin, Michael O'Neil, Robert (Bob) Fitzgerald, James Barrett, Daniel O'Mahony, Jeremiah O'Sullivan, William Henley). January 7th. Cork County Council (which was the first Council in Ireland to hold competitive examinations for clerk- ships of the Council) has made Irish a compulsory subject for its examinations This is a great advance in encouragement of the language. A Public Libraries Act having been passed, from "the Celtic we wrote to the Cork Rural District Council urging it to put the Act into operation in Cork Rural District. January 10th. At a meeting of the Coisde Ceanntair of the Gaelic League, I was appointed "Press Secretary". (This led to nor furnishing Gaelic League notes to the "Evening Echo" for a number of years. They also appeared, at times, in the daily and weekly "Examiner".) 22. 1904 Debate at "the Celtic" on the question - "Does Independence constitute Nationality?" An interesting debate. The matter was fully thrashed out. (And on other occasions as well as on this one). All who were present agreed it does not. January 18th, Arthur Griffith writes to me9 asking if I would send some "notes" weekly for publication in the "United Irishman". January 19th; Thomas O'Gorman, a prominent member of the Cork Catholic Young Men's Society, asks my help in starting in Cork a Dramatic Society on the lines of one that has been organised by Cumann na nGaedheal in Dublin. Christopher Rooney, Principal of Skerry's College, Cork, is also interested, He is secretary of the Young Men's Society. The founding of the Abbey Theatre had aroused interest in the production of Irish plays and we doubted not but that there was local talent capable of writing and producing plays of a similar type to those of the Abbey, (Our discussion was the germ of an idea which ultimately grew into the formation of a Cork Dramatic Society). January 31st. Letter from P.S. O'Hegarty, London, and from Robert Emmet Branch, Cumann na nGaedheal, Drumcondra, suggesting exchange of Ms. Journals. February 6th. Sean Milroy and John O'Mahonyof Dublin, and others, tiers enrolled members of the Celtic Literary Society February 10th. Cork Dramatic Society was formally established at a meeting in the rooms of "the Celtic". February 27th. J.L. Fawsitt, and others, enrolled as; members. Jerome O'Leary, a subscriber to the Society, read a paper on "A forgotten Cork Poet" - Edward Walsh. March 7th. Cork Trades Council are organising the St. Patrick's Day Demonstration this year. Delegates were sent from "the Celtic" to a meeting of the Organising Committee to propose that a request be made to have all licensed premises closed on the National Holiday. Their proposal was defeated by a majority. 23. 1904. May 8th. A meeting was held in "the Celtic" roomsof 'Cork City and County Reform Committee, G.A.A." This was on the initiative of our "Eire Og" Hurling Club. A number of representatives from various Clubs were present. The immediate purpose was to change the personnel of the Cork County Board; to have audited accounts presented to the Board, and to have discipline enforced at matches. Patrick Harris was secretary of our Club. June 25th. Having written to Father Peter O'Leary, (An t-Athair Peadar"), of Castlelyons, inviting him to speak at the opening of the Colaiste Mumhan, I got Ms reply today. He consents to speak and deliver the opening address, (The College was opened on July 4th, 1904). The Committee who had arranged for the opening of the College consisted of Rev. Patrick Hurley, P.P., Iveleary; Tadhg O Scanaill, N.T., Rev. Pr. Augustine, O.S.F.C., Patrick O'Shea, N.T., Glengariff; Sean; Caoimh (of the "Freeman's Journal); Rev. John O'Connell, C.C., Coomhola; Michael Murphy, Solr., Cork. Father Augustine had drawn up the curriculum for the courses. The Bishops of I1unster bad consented to become patrons and subscribed to the College funds. The Headmaster for this opening session was Diarmuid Foley, blown as "Feargus Finnbheil", a Customs official. Rev. Dr. O'Daly, born In Australia of Irish parentage, was Professor of Phonetics, He was acquainted with many languages, speaking several fluently. Mr. O'Seaman conducted a course in bilingual teaching for National. Schools. (Many of the students who attended the College in its early years became prominent In Irish life in later years).: July 30th. Revision of voters' lists is taking place. I took a dozen forms, with names and addresses In Irish, To the town Clerk's office. The official in charge of the voters' list. 24. 1904. became quite fussy. To have names in Irish on the lists seemed something revolutionary to him. No doubt it was the first time in the history of franchise forms in Cork that names appeared in Irish. Michael O'Neill, of the "Celtic", handed in other names, They duly appeared on the voters' list. August 17th. Consequent on William O'Brien's resignation, the writ has been issued for the election of a parliamentary representative for Cork City. It occurred to me that this may be an opportunity for putting forward a candidate, on the "ticket" of the "Rungarian Policy"; pledged to abstension from the British Parliament. I conferred with some members of "the Celtic", They favoured the idea. Milroy obtained nomination forms. I called on John J. Horgan, Solicitor1 and discussed the idea with him, but he Seemed to be dumbfounded by it. at least, he had no ideas on the matter, tack of money is our difficulty. I wrote to Arthur Griffith for advice. The men I had in mind as possible candidates are John Sweetman or Edward Martyn. There is no hint that the United Irish League intend to contest the election. August 20th. Reply from Griffith, He says time is too short between nomination and election to explain the "Hungarian Policy" to the people. He, therefore, advises not to nominate a candidate for Cork. O'Brien was nominated and returned unopposed. It is said he was not consulted and was nominated against his wishes. August 23rd Augustine Roche, as lord Mayor of Cork, pays a "courtesy visit" to Lord Charles Beresford, in command of the Channel Squadron of the British Navy, now in Cork Harbour. Many nice things are said on both sides! Irish youths will be welcomed into the British Navy. lord Charles was much interested in the reports of the Industrial Development Association. 25. 1904. There must be some insincerity in this "courtesy". Can one honestly welcome here representatives of England's imperial power and, at the same time, truly desire Irish freedom from English rule? There is no doubt, however, but the great majority of Irishmon regard such actions as this of lord Mayor Roche as "the right thing" to do, Such actions are "popular".. August 30th. Christy. (Diarmuid) Lynch, home from New York on holiday, addressed members of "the Celtic" after our reading of Manuscript Journal, "ƒire îg", Bad a walk with him afterwards. We discoursed many aspects of Irish affairs. He is quite interesting and seems very troll informed on activities in the United States of Irish-American Societies. During our walk us met Edward Sheehan, M.A., and Dan Tierney. October 2nd. Resolution sent from Celtic Literary Society to Cork Co. Council asking the Council to change the names of bridges, George IV and Wellington, to O'Neill-Crowley and Thomas Davis bridges. (Later, the suggestion was complied with by the Co. Council). October 3rd. An Industrial Exhibition, organised by the Cork Association, was held in the Assembly Rooms. The opening ceremony was performed by Lady Fitzgerald-Arnott. Lord Mayor Augustine Roche presided.. T.P. Gill, Secretary of the Depart- merit of Technical Education, was among the speakers. A hand some-looking man, with a long flowing beard! The entertainments connected with the Exhibition were contributed to by members of "the Celtic", the Inghintdhe na hƒireann and the Cache League. I had invited Griffith to come to the opening, but he wrote to say be was unable to do so and was asking Dan McCarthy to visit it. Also wrote to him asking if he would induce Senor Bulfin, Editor of the "Southern Cross" of Buenos Aires at present in Ireland, to come to Cork and lecture on Thomas Davis, as we have in mind a Davis Commemoration ceremony. 26. 1904.1904 October 13th. Bulfin could not come to Cork, An appreciative article on the Cork Industrial Exhibition appears in the Dublin "Leader". I surmise it as written by John. J. Horgan, D.P. Moran, owner and editor of the "Leader", while supporting the language and Industrial movements, baa only abusive, terms for a new political departure, which is really a part of the same national movement. The "United Irishman" is a beacon light." guiding the forces onward". Griffith is an Incisive writer. October 21st. William O'Brien addressed a large crowd in Cork Cornmarket on Sunday last, October 16th. the burden of his speech was "Conciliation": Conference with ford Dunraven and the Irish Roform Association and then, "Home Rule 4.iy consent". "Three Cs." is his slogan' Conference9 Conciliation, Consent. Prominent iii the news is the account of an eviction at Watergrasshill, Co. Cork. A family were to be evicted from their holding. There was resistance to the bailiffs. A large force of police was present. After a fight with "the peelers", acting on advice of Eugene Crean, H.P. and the local Curate, the people submitted. The defenders of the, house were charged at the Petty: Sessions Court, Wednesday, 19th. On some provocation or other, real or fancied, the police baton charged the people outside the court. Several people were Injured. There is a Eremendous furore. The United Irish League are demanding a Government engmiry into the occurrence. There are threats of prosecuting the police! The baton charge looks almost like Dublin Castle's reply to O'Brien's policy of conciliation! In "Cork Weekly Examiner" there are some amusing pictures of the baton charge. 27. 1904 Yesterday, 20th, there was a resolution regarding the National Board of Education before a meeting of Cork Board of Guardians. Alderman P.H. Meade proposed an alternative resolution - calling for the abolition of the National Board! Commendable, if drastic! The Rational Board of Education is one of the strongest anglicising forces in the country and, of courses is entirely undemocratic. "Paddy" Meade's remarks were excellent from a nationalist and democratic point of view. The whole matter was adjourned for six months. (Paddy Meade was prominent in public life in Cork for over a quarter of a century. He was Mayor in 1895, 1897, 1898, In his young days ho ins a member of the Irish Republican Brotherhood - so I heard. He was "a strong Parnellite"). October 23rd. Another debate at the Celtic Literary Society on the "Hungarian Policy". two members of Cumann na nGaedheal branch in Limerick were present. Both spoke and spoke excellently. October 24th. Special meeting of "Celtic" to discuss the matters on the Agenda of the Convention of Cumann na nGaedheal to be held in Dublin on the 30th. Against my own desire, I was selected as representative of "the Celtic" to the Convention, on proposition of Terence MacSwiney.. October 29th. In Dublin: Went to Molesworth Ball to see the performance of two "Sambain" plays Peter White and Michael J. Quinn were at the door. The plays ware "The Hard Hearted Man", by Seamus MacManus, and "An International Exhibition", by Joseph Ryan, the latter a skit upon those in Dublin who had proposed such a project. It was very enjoyable. October 30th. Convention to Mansion House, Dawson Street., Donal O'Connor presided. A fair attendance of delegates; not an impressive number; nearly all young men; earnest, yet not 28, 1904. too serious, Differences of opinion on various matters were expressed, but no difference on the math principle: that Ireland belongs to the Irish people and no foreign potter should rule it. There was a resolution on the Agenda to the effect that Cumann na nGaedheal should not assist or take part in any movement established or about to be established for the furtherance of "the Hungarian Policy" in Ireland. The resolution was not approved. Ho definite decision was arrived at. Griffith spoke finely in advocacy of such a policy; national self-reliance and repudiation of English rule. The general feeling was that the policy should be allowed to grow, as it were. It needs a gradual education of the people for its adoption. Without conviction, it cannot be operated. During the Bonvention, I became acquainted with Bulmer Hobson, Penis McCullough, Brian O'Higgins, P.T. Daly, Mullin of Oliver Bond Club, and, others. Proposed by Mrs. MacBride for the Executive1 I was elected on a vote0 O'Donovan Rossa is coming to Ireland during November. He is to unveil a National Monument in Skibbereen. In "the Celtic" we had discussed the matter of organising a public reception for him in Cork City. I had been directed to mention this at the Convention. I did so. To ray surprise, a statement was made that Rossa was a member of a reception committee in New York to welcome John Redmond there. In consequence of this, the Convention took no action; and, as a branch of Cumann ma nGacdbeal, it looked as if the Cork Celtic Literary Society could take no action either, to arrange a reception for Rossa. Ootober 3Oth. Sunday ninht, Ceilidhe in Mansion House, organised by Inghinidhe na hEireann. During the ceilidhe, John O'Leary and Douglas Hyde came in and wore awarded a great 29. 1904. ovation. It scorned significant, a linking up, as it were, of the Gaelic League, represented by its President, with one of the outstanding figures of Fenianism, a veteran of '67. I was introduced to O'Leary. Rearing I was from Cork, he desired ma to convoy his good wishes to "Charlie" Doran of Cove, who, I informed him, was President of our Celtic Literary Society. (Doran Was an old "comrade-in-arms" of his in '67), O'Leary is tall; straight, as he must have been in youth; proud-looking; with a long, flowing board, not fully grey; thin figure; bearing, evidence of ago1 but with somewhat. commanding aspect and eyes still bright and piercing. Douglas Hyde is genial, effusive, His Irish is simple, easy; but not his Munster "bias". One easily feels at home with him, as ho has no "airs" The Lord Mayor. of Dublin was also present. October 3lst. Spent a good part of the day with Griffith. lie is usually a silent man: a good listener. In private conversation, however, not in general company, he expands. Usually serious also, one finds him in private with a good sense of humour. In our converse today, he tells tic Tim Healy, H.P., is secretly favourable to the "Hungarian policy", as an alternative to the Parliamentary pol icy, as are some of the younger men among the supporters of the Parliamentary Party. Davitt is also favourable and Dillon not antagonistic. Lord Dunraven is simply using William O'Brien for his conciliation policy. Judging by letters received, the "United Irishman" and what it advocates is taking a strong hold on the minds of many of those who are considered "the thinking men" of the country. The movement based on the Hungarian example is a slow movement; the foundations have to be carefully laid. It is a matter of changing the national mental outlook; to induce self-reliance and got rid of the attitude of dependence upon England and the goodwill of the English Government. 30 1904 Called upon Alderman Walter Cole. Re is a member of what is called the "National. Reform, and Temperance F1rty" in Dublin Corporation. An active, pleasant, genial man, of high intelligence, full of information. Also met Peter White, Joseph Ryan, Michael Quinn, Brian O'Higginas and some others. Then o ailed to the Gaelic League headquarters, 24 Upper O'Connell St., and bad a chat with Padraig î Dalaigh, çrd Runaidhe. I bad also been introduced to a Gerald Ewing. He had made a protest against 'stage-Irish shows" at St. Louis Exhibition. As a consequence, he got dismissed from his employment and is now in Ireland. Novewber 3rd. Discussion at "Celtic" regarding a public reception for O'Donovan Rossa. In view of what was said at the Convention, it appears that we cannot, as a Society, organise a reception. There are rumours around that Rossa has a British Government Pension! This we believe entirely false and absurd. Then, it is urged by some tint, if we do not act, a reception will, be organised by pseudo-Nationalists. The members of "the Celtic" disagreed as to what should be done. After our meeting, Fred Cronin and I went to the rooms of Barrack St. Band and bad. a talk with Richard Sisk, T.C., who is Chairman of the Band Committee. It was arranged that we call a meeting of representatives of various Societies in the Band Room and form a "Rossa Reception Committee". It is difficult to believe that was said of Rossa at Cumann na nGaedheal Convention, but also difficult to doubt the word of those at the Convention, Wrote to Griffith asking him for the source of the information about Rossa. Also wrote Ingoldsby, Secretary, Cumann na nGaedheal Executive. November 6th. Reply from Griffith. Re only repeats statements made at Convention, Gives no conclusive proof of charges against Rossa. 31. 1904 November 7th. Today's newspapers report that Redmond and O'Brien patched up their differences yesterday, at Limerick. Both spoke "Conciliation". They say "the country" is nets united. It could hardly be said to have been disunited because of their present differences. What really seems to be is that the country is apathetic. The can to it to wake up is from "Irish Ireland". November 10th. C.G. Doran attended a meeting at the Celtic Literary Society tonight. Be is Rossa's "agent" and is chiefly responsible for arranging his tour for the old Fenian leader. He denied, absolutely and emphatically, that O'DonovanRossa bad changed his opinions, Re had beard nothing of Rossa's attending a Redmondite meeting in New York, but, if be wore present at it, it was in his capacity as a Journalist. Ma stated that everything possible was being done by British agents to prevent Rossa getting a reception on his arrival in Ireland and that the rumours we had beard, in an probability, were originated by British agents! We believed Doran, He, obviously, knew the facts. So, we unanimously decided to take part in forming a Rossa Reception Committee. We went to Barrack St. Band Room. Dick Sisk presided at the meeting there. Doran also came with us. Vary reluctantly9 because of my affiliation with Cumann na nGaedheal, I accepted the secretaryship of the committee, but insisted that Fred Cronin act with me. November 14th. Meeting of Rossa Reception Committee in room of Barrack St. Band. C.G. Doran presided, There were between 70 and 80 present, representative of the Celtic Literary Society, Young Ireland Society, Munster Council of the Gaelic Athletic Association, Cork Co. Board, G.A.A., United Irish league, North West Ward, Pork Butchers' Society, Bricklayers and Masons, Painters' Society, Blackpool Gaelic 32. 1904. league, Passage West Hurling Club, Eire îg Hurling Club, Juvorna Foocball Club, G.P.O. Gaelic Football Club, Young Ireland Football Club, Juvorna Hurling Club, Dread Van Drivers' I Association, Barrack St. Band, Butter Exchange Band, Fair Lane Band, Kerry Pike Band, Masons Society, Carpenters' Socivty9 Boot and Shoe Operatives, St. Mary's Hurling Club. November 15th. Reply from O'Brian, one of the Honorary Secretaries of the Cumann na nGaedheal Executive in Dublin, The Executive wishes that no branches or members of the Organisation take part in giving Rossa a reception! This in a very mixed-up affair! Replied immediately, informing O'Brian as to what action "the Celtic" had taken and giving reasons. He stated he was sending an American paper in which Rossa's speeches at Redmond's meeting were reported. It did not come to hand. November 17th. Another meeting of Rossa Reception Committee. Charles Doran, Richard Cronin, T.C., Richard Sisk, P.C., M.D. O'Brien, Michael J. O'Callaghan, Nicholas Kenneally, William Curtin, Matthew O'Riordan and Thomas Irwin, Fred Cronin and myself Were appointed to neat Rossa on board the liner in Cork Harbour. The marsh ling of a procession in the city was left to twenty men of the Gaelic Athletic Association, to be selected by Cork County Board. A Mr. C.P. O'Sullivan stated that "the Old Guard" would take part in the procession in full strength. ("The Old Guard" were the men of the Irish Republican Brotherhood, Fenian Organisation, men who were connected with the Fenian Rising of 1867). It was decided to prescnt an illuminated address to Rosa, to be in the Irish language only. Matthew O'Riordan, Chairman Cork Co. Board, G.A.A., announced that the Co. Board bud called on all the Clubs in 33. 1904. Cork city and county to take part in the demonstration to welcome Rossa to Cork. November 18th. 11.15 p.m. to Cove. The Barrack St. Band accompanied the deputation appointed to meet Rossa. November 19th. 2.W a.m, We boarded the tender and steamed out Cork Harbour, the band playing! 4 a.m. The liner, "Etruria' sailed in and anchored off Roche's point. We went on board and Rossa. was soon among the group, introductions being conducted by C.C. Doran. Many newspaper men were present; representatives of the Irish, English and American press. We returned to Cork, and Rossa remained with Doran in Cove. I had given the copy of address of welcome to Patrick Stanton, a profound scholar or Irish and illuminator of manuscripts, to be translated and inscribed on parchment. I called, upon him. He had the ad4ress ready, beautifully engrossed, with intertwined "Celtic!' bordering, and, so far I can judge, translated into classical Irish. I noted he writes "Comhfhlaitheas Eireannach" as the equivalent of "Irish Republic'. November 20th. Sunday. 3 p.m. Glanmire Railway Station to meet Rossa and Doran coming from Cove. A large, enthusiastic crowd were at the station. Several bands playing lively airs. Our visitors alighted from the train and were convoyed to an open carriage. In the carriage, with Rossa and Doran, were Dick Cronin, T.C., M.D. O'Brien, Geoffrey Wycherley, chairman, Skibbereen Young Ireland Society, and myself. The horses wore unyoked and men drew the carriage through the city; King St., Patrick St., Grand Parade, South Mail to the Municipal Buildings. I had never before seen such a multitmde or people on the streets- or such wild enthusiasm. At the National Monument on the Grand Parade, there was a halt. The men drawing the carriage insisted on taking it around the monument, twice. Disaster! A wheel of the carriage 34. 1904. broke. We had to alight and fight our way through the crowd. We succeeded in getting on a jarvey car. We reached the Municipal Buildings safely. A struggle to get through the throng to the platform. It required much exertion. Everyone, it seemed wanted to shako hands with O'Donovan Rossa. Rossa spoke, a bit ramblingly not a sot address. There was no parliamentarianism in what ho said It was the spirit of Irish Nationalism as we of CuMANNna nGaedheal know it. I had asked him to speak some words in Irish, Knowing him to be a native Irish speaker. He complied by reciting some Irish verses he had. himself composed years before. His Munster "blas" was untouched by residence in the United States. After the meeting us again Bet off in the jarvey car, which conveyed us to M.D. O'Brien's house in Barrack Street. Here, beside the fire, I bad an hour or so alone with Rossa. We chatted on various topics. He lives in the past, to a great extent; is a wonderful storyteller; a genuine old-time seanachaidhe. At "the Celtic" our Manuscript Journal was being read. I arranged that Rossa attend and speak. He spoke a good deal in Irish and told many stories. He looked as if he would like to stay by the fire all night, telling us stories, but we had to let him visit the Young Ireland Society, across the street. Without any questioning on our part, he has again and again said he has not changed his nationalist opinions. He may have been at Redmond's meeting, as was stated at Cumann na nGaedheal Convention, but I do not believe, he spoke at it in favour of Parliamentarianism. November 22nd. Received this morning a copy of "The Resurrection of Hungary" - Griffith's booklet, telling how the Hungarians won against. Austria by a policy of "passive resistance" Entertainingly written, with the moral for Ireland driven home. Wrote to him, to compliment him. Also sent him 35. 1904. Cork newspapers with the reports of Rossa's meetings. Sent these also to the Hon. Secretaries of Cumann na nGaedheal Executive. November 23rd.Jtyember_Z3xA. A letter from Ingoldsby (one of the secretaries). He thinks I should get Rossa to wake a public denial of having attended Redmond's meeting. I think this quite unnecessary now, November 24th. "Echo" reports that Cork Corporation at special meeting today, decided to confer the freedom of the city on Rossa, November 28th. Press reports of meeting at Skibbersen yesterday, at unveiling of National Monument by Rossa, state it was of large proportions. A letter was read from Mrs. NacBride. She eulogises Rossa, and she was present at Cumann na nGaedheal Convention and heard what was said against him. November 3Oth. At a meeting of Rossa Reception Committee, it was decided to have him lecture in Cork. We understand he has very little to subsist on; his only income being subscriptions to his paper, which cannot be very great. December 2nd. Griffith, in 'the "United Irishman" makes reference to Rossa's Homecoming. He has almost wholly accepted the views I expressed in letters I wrote him. This is satisfactory. December 3rd. At a meeting of the Celtic Literary Society, on proposal of Terence MacSwiney, supported by Fred Cronin, it was agreed to order one thousand copies of "The Resurrection of Hungary" and to have them on sale at O'Donovan's Rossa's lecture. The principal of Skerry's College, Christopher Rooney, B.A. a cultured man and, one-time Hon. Secretary of the Cork Catholic Young Non's Society, is not favourable to the Irish language. He expresses very common arguments in opposition: 36. 1904. "It is a useless, non-economic language to learn"; "Its use is the expression of mere sentiment"; "it is a language of boors and peasants". I have now a pragmatic answer for him! The Secretaryship of Cork Co. Council is becoming vacant. David MacDonnell, LL.D., intends to be a candidate for the post. He assumes a knowledge of Irish will be required, according to the Council's decision to have Irish as a subjectact of examinations. He came to Skerry's College for a tutor, and Rooney, tolerant to other people's opinions, referred him to me. An LL.D. is not an ordinary pupil at the college. So, as I pointed outs Irish has become "economic"! (David MacDonnell was married to a daughter of Denny Lane, Cork poet and Young Irelander of 1848, He died some years ago. Mrs MacDonnell still lives at Sunday's Well, Cork, and was prominent in the Davis Centenary Celebrations, October, 1945.) 9th. A latter from Ingoldsby. Be now. suggests that Rossa be asked to publicly endorse the policy of Cumann na nGaedheal. This is a new turn of affairs, I am doubtful about it Would it help in any way? William O'Brien, M.P., and lord Mayor Augustine Roche have subscribed to a "Rossa Testimonial" organised by Skibbereen Young Ireland Society. William is to be at Macroom on Sunday next. What if ho attend Rossa's lecture? What attitude shall we adopt? And what if the lard l4ayor attend? Be would be entitled to preside at it. December 10th: last night attended performance of "The last Irish King" and "A Pot of Broth", in the Imperial Hall This is the first effort of our Cor